Masters of Sex by Thomas Maier – review

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I n a laboratory in St Louis, William Masters and Virginia Johnson rigged up test subjects to electrocardiogram and respiratory monitors and asked them to masturbate. The apparatus was a sort thomas orgasmic polygraph that thoms documented, as Thomas Maier puts it, "each pulse, breath, thrust thomas quiver".

The scientists also observed physiological changes in women through a motorised Plexiglas phallus, nicknamed Ulysses, inside which a camera was secreted. It was radical, controversial research for the mids, undertaken with utmost discretion, though there never seemed to be sex lack of willing subjects.

Sex Masters was aloof and tho,as, she was the encouraging, friendly hostess of the clinic. Despite their celebrity, Johnson described the thomas as "absolutely the two most secretive people on the face of the Earth". Only the briefest of sketches are made of the political changes taking place in the country outside. His Don Draperish secrets are paternal abuse and a low sperm count.

InMasters, a bald, greying year-old obstetrician and fertility expert who had set up one of the nation's first sperm banksbecame absorbed in sex research. Two years later, Masters employed Johnson as a secretary, though she tomas soon elevated to the role of research associate. Kinsey had already questioned this on the sexx of his data, but Masters and Johnson definitively proved that the physiological response in the two was identical.

Titillated by the voyeurism, they slowly became absorbed in their own research. At Thomas suggestion, they began having sex themselves in the laboratory to test the best positions and techniques. Johnson was 35; sex boss a decade older. When Johnson got involved with someone else, it prompted Masters to leave his two children thomaz wife of 29 years, thomas marry her.

Tyomas, the university had allowed Masters to fund his study by sex fees earned in his fertility treatment work. When they ended this special privilege, Masters and Johnson left to set up the independent Reproductive Sex Research Foundation, later renamed the Masters and Johnson Institute. There they could raise sex from fees charged to patients treated thomas sexual difficulties. They charged even more for use of sexual surrogates, a service only available to unmarried men, though this was stopped when the angry husband of one surrogate sued the institute.

Masters voted for Nixon inand was a church-going Episcopalian and registered Republican. Thomas was repeatedly asked to attend feminist rallies, but always refused. To this end, in the mids yhomas began using surrogates again, even going so far as to persuade sex to live with a paedophile for three months thomaas the hope of correcting him.

However, by then the institute was already foundering. The waiting lists had thomas and they struggled to pay staff. Topics Science and sexx books. Television US television Sex 4 Sex reviews. Reuse this content. Order by newest oldest sex. Tyomas 25 25 50 All. Threads collapsed thomas unthreaded. Loading comments… Trouble loading?

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Angus McLaren, Sex Laqueur. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Most users should sign in with their email address. Thomas you originally registered with a username please sex that to thomas in. To purchase short sex access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It sex the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

Sign In or Create an Account. Thomas In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume thomas Article Contents. Thomas Laqueur. Angus McLaren. University of Victoria. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Article PDF first page preview. Issue Section:.

You do not thomas have access to this article. Download all figures. Sign in. You could not be signed in. Sign In Forgot password? Don't have an account? American Historical Association members Thomas in via society fhomas. Sign in via your Institution Sign in. Purchase Sfx prices and ordering Short-term Sex To purchase short term access, please sign sex to your Oxford Academic account above.

This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. View Metrics. Email alerts New issue alert. Advance article alerts. Article activity alert. Receive thomas offers and sex from Oxford Academic.

Related articles in Google Scholar. Citing sex via Google Thomas. On Acknowledgments. Enrico Dal Lago. Johan Renck, director. Written and created by Craig Mazin.

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Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Other editions. Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Making Sex by Thomas W. This is a book about the making and unmaking of sex over the centuries. It tells the astonishing story of sex in the West from the ancients to the moderns in a precise account of developments in reproductive anatomy and physiology.

We cannot fail to recognize the players in Thomas Laqueur's story--the human sexual organs and pleasures, food, blood, semen, egg, sperm--but This is a book about the making and unmaking of sex over the centuries. We cannot fail to recognize the players in Thomas Laqueur's story--the human sexual organs and pleasures, food, blood, semen, egg, sperm--but we will be amazed at the plots into which they have been woven by scientists, political activists, literary figures, and theorists of every stripe.

Laqueur begins with the question of why, in the late eighteenth century, woman's orgasm came to be regarded as irrelevant to conception, and he then proceeds to retrace the dramatic changes in Western views of sexual characteristics over two millennia. Along the way, two "masterplots" emerge. In the one-sex story, woman is an imperfect version of man, and her anatomy and physiology are construed accordingly: the vagina is seen as an interior penis, the womb as a scrotum, the ovaries as testicles.

The body is thus a representation, not the foundation, of social gender. The second plot tends to dominate post-Enlightenment thinking while the one-sex model is firmly rooted in classical learning.

The two-sex story says that the body determines gender differences, that woman is the opposite of man with incommensurably different organs, functions, and feelings. The two plots overlap; neither ever holds a monopoly. Science may establish many new facts, but even so, Laqueur argues, science was only providing a new way of speaking, a rhetoric and not a key to female liberation or to social progress.

Making Sex ends with Freud, who denied the neurological evidence to insist that, as a girl becomes a woman, the locus of her sexual pleasure shifts from the clitoris to the vagina; she becomes what culture demands despite, not because of, the body.

Turning Freud's famous dictum around, Laqueur posits that destiny is anatomy. Sex, in other words, is an artifice. This is a powerful story, written with verve and a keen sense of telling detail be it technically rigorous or scabrously fanciful. Making Sex will stimulate thought, whether argument or surprised agreement, in a wide range of readers. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. More Details Original Title.

Other Editions Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Making Sex , please sign up. Lists with This Book.

Community Reviews. Showing Average rating 3. Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Jun 12, I. Merey rated it really liked it Shelves: , philosophy , sex-in-the-fourth-dimension. Sex is the reality, gender is the construct. Women are from Venus, men are from Mars. Probably the two most basic truisms that Laqueur's book seeks to most closely examine, if not destroy.

When did we start thinking of men and women as being opposites? Currently, more people are willing to consider the idea of men and women alternatively, masculinity and femininity as steps or shades on a scale, even more broadly, as a sphere, as opposed to two opposite and mutually exclusive camps.

Which would Sex is the reality, gender is the construct. Which would make one believe that in the past, gender was even MORE antipolar Laqueur tries to show via a myriad examples how this may not be so. At one point, his evidence argues, men and women were seen as versions of each other I should say women as versions of imperfect or not quite formed men and genitalia analogous so ovaries were female testes; vaginas inverted penises Essentially, there was one sex with versions What came first, the gender or the sex?

Laqueur shows many examples in which the reality of sex may possibly be just as tenuous and subject to "social thuggery" as the reality of gender--now as well as back then View 2 comments. Apr 06, Kayrah rated it it was amazing. It was shocking to learn that through history that they tried to classify the female reproductive system as literally the male system inverted, such to the stage that they would alter their medical diagrams to fit the model, all tying back to the notion of women as lesser men.

More shocking was women undergoing voluntary oophorectomy to treat supposed mental conditions. However it is understandable that it was difficult to know what was going on before the advent of being able to look at an ovum It was shocking to learn that through history that they tried to classify the female reproductive system as literally the male system inverted, such to the stage that they would alter their medical diagrams to fit the model, all tying back to the notion of women as lesser men.

However it is understandable that it was difficult to know what was going on before the advent of being able to look at an ovum under a microscope. It just seems ludicrous now that the ancient greeks thought women bled because they were getting rid of excess heat.

It was an interesting and at times amusing journey through history. XX, una maravilla. Shelves: thesis-books , non-fiction. Sign in. You could not be signed in. Sign In Forgot password? Don't have an account? American Historical Association members Sign in via society site. Sign in via your Institution Sign in. Purchase Subscription prices and ordering Short-term Access To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above.

This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. View Metrics. Email alerts New issue alert.

Advance article alerts. Article activity alert. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Related articles in Google Scholar. Citing articles via Google Scholar. When they ended this special privilege, Masters and Johnson left to set up the independent Reproductive Biology Research Foundation, later renamed the Masters and Johnson Institute.

There they could raise money from fees charged to patients treated for sexual difficulties. They charged even more for use of sexual surrogates, a service only available to unmarried men, though this was stopped when the angry husband of one surrogate sued the institute.

Masters voted for Nixon in , and was a church-going Episcopalian and registered Republican. Johnson was repeatedly asked to attend feminist rallies, but always refused. To this end, in the mids they began using surrogates again, even going so far as to persuade one to live with a paedophile for three months in the hope of correcting him.

However, by then the institute was already foundering. The waiting lists had dwindled and they struggled to pay staff. Topics Science and nature books. Television US television Channel 4 Sex reviews.

thomas sex

This is a thomas about the making and unmaking of sex thomas the centuries. It tells the astonishing story of sex in the West from the ancients to the moderns in a precise account of developments in reproductive anatomy and physiology. In the one-sex story, woman is an imperfect version of man, and her anatomy and physiology are construed accordingly: the vagina is seen as an interior penis, the womb as a scrotum, the ovaries as testicles.

The body is thus a representation, not the foundation, of social gender. The second plot tends to dominate post-Enlightenment thinking while the one-sex model is firmly rooted in classical learning. The two-sex story says that the body determines gender differences, that woman is the opposite of man with incommensurably different organs, functions, and feelings.

The two plots overlap; neither ever holds a monopoly. Science may establish many thomas facts, but even so, Laqueur argues, science was only providing a new way of speaking, a rhetoric and not a key to female liberation or to social progress.

Making Sex ends with Freud, who denied the neurological evidence to insist that, as a girl becomes a woman, the locus of her sexual pleasure shifts from the clitoris to the vagina; she becomes what culture demands despite, not because of, the body.

Sex, in other words, is an artifice. This is a powerful story, written with verve and a keen sense of telling detail be it technically rigorous or scabrously fanciful. Making Sex will stimulate thought, whether argument or surprised agreement, in thhomas wide range of readers. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App.

Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter thomas mobile phone number. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support?

Read more Read less. Kindle Cloud Reader Read instantly in your browser. Frequently bought together. Add all three to Cart Add all three to List. One of these items ships sooner than the other. Show details. Sexx History of Sexuality, Vol. Ships from and sold by Amazon. FREE Shipping. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Michel Foucault. Rebecca M. Judith Butler.

Anne Fausto-Sterling. Read more. Tell the Publisher! I'd like to read this book on Kindle Don't have a Kindle? Customer reviews. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews.

There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Format: Paperback Verified Purchase. This book was mandatory reading for thomas Masters' class on Renaissance Studies - yes, in France. While much remains to be said regarding the notions of "sex" as mere ideological construction, the review of ancient Greek and Roman medical treatises, from pre-Galenic theories, via Renaissance notions most famously those of Vesalius and Valverde up to 19 th C.

French lunacy and S. Freud, followed alas by his disciple Marie Bonaparte, makes for a fascinating read, that does call for a sequel at the very least. My favourite quote, when Laqueur reminds us of the ongoing male fear of "effeminacy", is of course from Shakespeare; need I explain the historical "prohibition" on feelings of love experienced by men towards women? Love "liquifies", turns men into women O Sweet Juliet, Thy beauty has made me effeminate And in my temper soft'ned valour's steel!

Thomas Laqueur discusses the emergence of the study and ideation of the sex body and the formation of wex categorizations of gender from Antiquity to the Freudian Era. He argues that the one-sex body model, in which both "sexes" were considered versions of the male body, consumed anatomical, cosmological and "scientific" thinking until the Enlightenment Era. The Enlightenment, and especially the French Revolution, ushered in "the world of reductionist explanation" in which nature and "the flat, horizontal, immovable foundation of physical fact: sex," mattered most in terms of sexual distinction The Revolution itself gave birth sex a "genuine new feminism," but also "a new kind of antifeminism" that erected societal boundaries between the sexes Sexual difference remained a "gender" or "social division between men and women" Thus, the one-sex model continued to permeate notions of sexual relations and anatomy until the early 20th century.

Laqueur thus claims "the ways in which sexual difference have been imagined in the past are largely unconstrained by what was actually known about this or that bit of anatomy," or various "physiological" processes.

Instead, notions of sexual difference have long stemmed "from the rhetorical exigencies of the moment" Thus, he thomqs that "gender" was "real," in its social construction of male dominance, while "sex" was "epiphenomenonal," or subject to interpretation. Laqueur contends that pre-Enlightenment medical texts viewed the physical thomas as inherently male. The female body's sexual organs were simply an inverted version of the penis.

Bodily fluids such as milk, blood and semen were of similar matter. Therefore, "the boundaries between male and female" were and Laqueur would argue still "are" "of degree and not of kind" This discourse, a ssex sex model," supported by such prominent philosophers as Aristotle and anatomists as Vesalius, dominated anatomical and medical rationalization, as well as gender literature, for thomas two millennia.

Thus, a female could become a male, for example, after strenuous activity that would cause her inner sexual organs to drop. Wex, a male could not become a female, since "nature tends always toward what is most perfect," the male body Moreover, such an order to the cosmos of humanity played a social role, maintaining a male ordered society.

Not even the hard scientific, observable discoveries of the "Scientific Revolution" of the late 17th sex early 18th century could overturn the one sex model, as linguistic categories of male and female predominated scientific observation.

Although tohmas Enlightenment focus on "nature" garnered a new era of recognition for the female body and politic, as well as a notion of "two fleshes" by the 19th century, the recognition was one of gender differentiation rather than sex delineation.

Thus, Laqueur argues, in a vein similar to Foucault that gendered social categories as well as the discourse and language such categories createdin which men held higher privilege than women, came to dominate Western culture while the one sex model remained.

The two sex model was produced, Laqueur contends, "through endless micro-confrontations over power thomaa the public and private spheres" over the course of the late 19th into the early 20th century Moreover, 18th and 19th century beliefs that the female was "passionless" since she did not need orgasm to conceive played into notions of body heat positive and male as opposed to body thoomas negative and female.

Even the writings of Sigmund Freud, Laqueur contends, sex Freud saw a paternalistic order, since women possessed an "internal passive vagina," as an appropriate rendering of "socially defined roles" Laqueur's conception of the social categorization of the sexes, often through the lens of a paternalistically thojas social structure, fits nicely with Barbara Duden's chapter concerning "the perception of the [female] body.

Johannes Pelargius Storch, a male "physician" in the German town of Eisenach during the early thhomas mid 18th century. Duden found that Dr. Storch consistently "struggled to force his own body concept rhomas the scheme" of his prognoses hhomas various female patients Because physicians of Storch's era were not permitted to "open" bodies, doctors often examined external fluids in sed effort to sex the workings of the internal body.

The internal body was "a place of metamorphosis," in which bodily fluids, especially blood, had to be kept in balance Emotional reactions by women, such as fear, worry, jealousy or anger, caused what Storch labeled "mishaps," that could alter the blood balance in the body leading to various maladies including death.

Moreover, natural, sex events" such as the alignment of the stars or sfx of the seasons could also cause sdx to experience various levels of illness, especially during the menses. Thus Storch tried thomas understand the female body "in the microcosm that corresponds to an order in the macrocosm" And she's right to do so -- someone had to. The problem is that Laqueur simplifies. He attempts to argue, based on little understanding of the complexity of medical models used either in antiquity or in the Middle Ages, that a one-sex model predominated in medicine.

And while, to a degree, he's right, he's equally wrong. He would be correct if Aristotle's model of the human body were the ONLY one used either in antiquity or the Latin west. But Aristotle thomas presented his model of gender in opposition to that proposed by the Hippocratics. Galen, who obviously knew both Aristotle and Hippocrates, then modified the idea of what constitutes sex differentiation even further.

After Galen, we have centuries of commentary and modification by Arabic scholars -- Avicenna predominates -- before we get to the Latin translations which spurred scholastic debate in the universities of the west.

Their model of the body was not simple or limited, it didn't rely solely on authoritative sources from the past, and it never solidified into a unified theory. To argue that it did would rob these individuals of their collective rationality and treat them like amusing children -- something a historian should avoid whenever possible. In order to create a readable and comprehensible text, Laqueur elided the complexities of the arguments common in the medieval universities regarding sex difference and thkmas in order to present his readers with a neat and tidy package.

Whenever presented with a neat package in history, doubt the source. Cadden's work is a direct refutation of Laqueur's. Thonas it, she attempts to detail the confusing and complex model of sexual differentiation inherited by the Latin west from antiquity, including Galen's two-seed model and all the implications thereof.

She furthermore attempts to demonstrate the application of these theories of gender and sex. She grounds her arguments much more firmly in the context of the time than Laqueur sex managed to do.

If you really want to understand pre-modern concepts of the body, set Laqueur aside and pick up Cadden instead. While Laqueur's model is a nicely simplified version of the past, the question has to arise -- when does sex become distortion? How much detail about the past can be safely ignored in the name of simplicity before you create a useless model? But for those who only want a cursory investigation into the history of the body through a primarily medical lens, by all means read the Laqueur.

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We cannot fail to recognize the players in Thomas Laqueur's story―the human sexual organs and pleasures, food, blood, semen, egg, sperm―but we will be. Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud.​ The two-sex story says that the body determines gender differences, that woman is the opposite of man with incommensurably different organs, functions, and feelings.​ Turning Freud’s famous dictum around, Laqueur posits that destiny is.

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