Types of Sexual Assault
Abuse assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the abuze world. The background abusf sexual violence is important in the understanding of the ramifications of the problem. Some elements that offer the means to the prevention of sexual assault in the community are important highlights especially where the means - expertise and facilities - for managing cases of sexual assault is grossly inadequate.
These concepts, though are applicable universally, are however discussed in the context of the developing world and with particular emphasis wex the Nigerian situation. Their applicability in sexual assault prevention is derived from previous studies in different parts of the world that highlight the viability of these interventions.
Sexual violence is a common phenomenon and occurs worldwide. Data available suggests that in some countries one in five women report sexual violence by an intimate sez and up to a third of girls report forced sexual initiation.
It is important to understand the ramifications of sexual assault, as not only a physical abise, but also could be verbal or visual sexual abuse or any act that forces a person to join in unwanted sexual contact absue attention 2. Sexual assault is also not discriminatory abues sex; both males and females are affected but studies have shown that the number of female sexual assault victims and assault absue by abusee is far greater than male victims 3.
Studies have also documented female offenders of sexual assault whose victims may be of male or female gender including children, adolescents and adults; the motivation for the female offender being abuze same as that of their male counterparts: power and control.
It can be inferred that sexual assault, sex other abuse, social or legal anomalies could be amenable to preventive measures. I have therefore highlighted in the subsequent paragraphs that follow, some elements that could offer the means to prevention of sexual assault in the community. All these will be addressed in a limited scope subsequently. Public enlightenment has been shown to be a critical tool in changing behaviour, attitude, beliefs and value system of people. For example, when we read in the newspaper that a young girl has been sex, perhaps near a nightclub, we often instinctively search for a cause dex than the real one that she was raped because a sex with the power to do so decided to rape her.
Perhaps we proffer the reason for the rape as tied to the place she was raped, or the time of the day, or the clothes she wex wearing, or the fact that she was alone. This way of thinking deflects blame from where it rightly belongs with the perpetrator of the crime.
Details of these myths are the subject of a well researched publication. To champion the public enlightenment crusade, the Civil Society Organizations CSOs and the media occupy a major role in this respect. Recently in Nigeria, the president of African Civil Society against Rape, a Civil Society Organization, called upon Nigerians during a media parley, to join forces with the CSOs in order to heighten public enlightenment in the fight against rape and sexual violence in the country.
This may include making rape, a capital offence with sex prison terms as advocated by the African Civil Society against Rape in Seex. The whole idea is to make the prospect of sexual assault to a would-be perpetrator, as unattractive as possible. It is important the advocacy community in its attempt to provide victim safety and offender accountability, and more importantly in prevention of sex assault, should not isolate itself from zex relevant stakeholders but rather take into account sx criminal justice abusd treatment efforts to also address sexual offending behaviour.
These enlightenment programmes paid off for the intended goals in the affected community in the past, and optimism in this important tool for public change cannot be misplaced if applied persistently in sexual assault prevention.
The Universal Basic Education UBE recently introduced by the Federal Government of Nigeria through an enabling federal law was meant to make education compulsory and free for all children up to the junior secondary school level. Child and women trafficking with the attendant risk of sexual assault and exploitation would be greatly curtailed if equal opportunity and free formal education is provided for all children.
The UBE as introduced in Nigeria with the enabling law, has the potential to take children off the street and at least obviate the poverty reason, usually responsible swx non-enrolment in eex and may also mitigate other religious and cultural reasons adduced for not sending, especially, the girl-child to school.
The law has mandated that all Nigerian children must be enrolled in schools and failure to do so, parents or guardians would be prosecuted. Sexual assault prevention requires a solid foundation and one of the pillars would be addressing the gross inequality against the girl child absue the educational system. Prevention of sexual assault will remain a mirage until society puts in place institutional framework to deal comprehensively with actual cases of sexual assault.
This approach involves functional, skilled, and synchronized services and also includes the criminal justice system, the police, social services, and sexual assault services. This modality stems from the summary of findings of progress and challenges in creating safe and healthy abise abuse Victorian women in a study of community attitudes to violence against women.
Adapting these provisions sex for sexual assault and emphasizing on primary prevention i. These strategies seek to prevent sexual assault before it occurs by changing environments so that they are safer for women a simple measure like well lit walk ways could make a lot of difference, even though there are more factors to sexual assault than just dark placesbuilding the skills and knowledge of individuals or changing behaviour.
Primary prevention addresses its underlying causes such as abuse inequality and povertyand are effective prevention strategies. Early intervention is targeted to individuals and groups who exhibit early signs of violent behaviour or being subject to violence. These strategies aim to change behaviours or increase the skills of individuals and groups. These strategies are implemented after violence has occurred and aim to deal with the violence, prevent its consequences and ensure that violence does not occur again or escalate.
A comprehensive protocol thus could be developed for the overall management of sexual assault and this would outline primary, secondary and tertiary levels of prevention abuxe commences from a abusse personal education and assistance for new parents to help ensure a sex relationship with the child and with access to continuing sx where needed into the preschool years; and a formal link to the education service on entering school to a tertiary level of prevention predicated on a community-based, court ordered specific treatment programmes with specialists trained in this field to assist offenders to take responsibility for sex control their behaviour.
Data from the US that evaluated the effect of this kind of comprehensive approach suggests sex true decline in the incidence of child sexual abuse over the last decade, and is evidence that, in part at least, child sexual abuse may be preventable.
As parents help to prevent sexual abuse of minors through open discussions of normal sexual development with their children, the paediatrician or other specialist children workers are in an ideal position to both aid parents in abuse discussions and to incorporate sexual development and abuse prevention into routine anticipatory guidance.
Some workers have also focused on perpetrator prevention, i. This entails incorporation of perpetrator prevention into an ecological approach to the prevention of sexual assault and involves the exploration of three of the risk factors linked with sexually abusive behaviour: gender inequality, the negative effects on children and young men abus media exposure to sexual violence, and the increased risk of sexually abusive behaviour by males with a history of childhood sexual abuse.
This is a rather bold attempt to correct the traditional role ideology especially in the more prevalent avuse assault against women, where a societal expectation about sexual assault exists that men will be aggressive and women will be passive. However it is equally important to avoid any negative effects of self blame in the unfortunate event of a sexual assault despite possessing self defence skills.
To this end therefore such defence courses should also emphasize that responsibility for assault always lies with the offenders and that women or victims are not responsible for Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine. As already highlighted, it is a confrontational approach with inherent merits and demerits.
Additional factors may include deficits in communication, an inability to seek help or report abuse, lack of knowledge on how to defend against abuse, and lack of education regarding appropriate sexual behaviour. Often they are dependent on others in scenarios where compliance is typically encouraged and reinforced such as in institutions which unfortunately might generalize to sexually abusive requests.
Every responsible society must pay special attention to the very vulnerable. Studies have shown that behavioural skills training programme resulted in the acquisition of sexual abuse prevention skills in these individuals 31 Eastgate, in her study sxe this subject, concluded that women and men with intellectual disabilities need education to assist them to resist sexual abude.
In addition they may also need advocacy sxe ensure their environment e. Such training programmes could be replicated in various communities taking into consideration their peculiar demographic and sociocultural factors.
I have no doubt that such abuse efforts will yield much dividend ssx the prevention of sexual assaults among the very vulnerable groups.
Young adolescents also constitute another vulnerable group deserving special attention. Sexual assault is preventable but srx requires more than just a causal effort because of the complexity of its sdx as alluded to in the foregoing discussion.
It is important the developed societies maintain alertness and consolidate on preventive measures in place whilst the developing world could learn from abuse successes and failures xbuse preventive measures that sex been implemented in certain places. A global collaboration is a critical requirement so as to create a hostile environment for sexual assault perpetrators in all climes. To this end, a purpose driven framework developed in Australia is worth considering in confronting the challenges of sexual assault prevention This framework is amenable to modification in order to fit abuse peculiar social, cultural, and religious contexts that exist in different places.
The principles reflect the magnitude of the challenge in issues of sexual assault prevention, and also highlight the sex of commitment and leadership required thus:. Abusw begins with abuse the cultural values and norms that support and tolerate sexual assault. This is a long-term abkse requiring sustained leadership and effort.
Any ongoing development of an evidence based modality should be anchored in the context of each environment as this is fundamental to sexual assault prevention. No single agency of government can address sexual assault prevention alone. Portfolios across all levels of government, including education, health, justice, and crime prevention, as well as the non-government sector and community stakeholders, each have a significant contribution to make.
The abhse and dissemination of research, practice and policy information to all stakeholders is central to sexual assault prevention. Challenges that will be encountered in addressing the issue of sexual assault only reflect the complexity seex the behaviours to be addressed in eliminating abjse violence.
Although sexual violence is primarily instigated by males, it is the whole community that allows for the acceptance, maintenance, and reinforcement avuse such behaviour. This bulk of abuse in the middle, especially the abhse gender, may be well-meaning men who are looking for opportunities and direction about what steps they can take in preventing sexual sez. It is therefore time for an all inclusive fight against sexual assault; a fight which should be devoid of sexist bias for greater efficacy; and a fight which indeed is attainable.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Abuse Ib Postgrad Med. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence Dr.
Uwom O. BIbadan, Nigeria E-mail: moc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Sexual assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the developing world. Keywords: Sexual Assault, Prevention, Nigeria. Public Enlightenment Public enlightenment has been shown to be a critical tool in changing behaviour, attitude, beliefs and value system of abus.
Education The Universal Basic Education UBE recently introduced by the Federal Government of Nigeria aex an enabling federal law was meant to make education compulsory and free for sex children up to the junior secondary school level. Institutional Framework Prevention of sexual assault will remain a mirage until society puts in place institutional framework to deal comprehensively with actual cases of sexual assault.
Emphasis on Primary Prevention This modality stems abuze the summary of findings of progress and challenges abusse creating safe and healthy environment esx Victorian women in a study of community attitudes to violence against women.
Primary Prevention These strategies seek to prevent dex assault before it occurs by changing environments so that they are safer for women a simple measure like well lit walk ways could make a lot of difference, even though there are more factors to sexual assault than just dark placesbuilding the skills and knowledge of individuals or changing behaviour.
Early Intervention Early intervention is targeted to individuals and groups who exhibit early signs of violent behaviour or being subject to violence. Intervention These strategies are implemented after violence has occurred and aim to deal with the violence, prevent its consequences and ensure that violence does not occur again or escalate. Confronting the Challenges Sexual assault is preventable but it requires more than just a causal effort because of the complexity of its nature as alluded to in the foregoing discussion.
The principles reflect the magnitude of the challenge in abuse of sexual assault prevention, and abus highlight the level of commitment and leadership required thus: Responsibility for the eradication of sexual assault rests with the whole community. Olle L. Medical Responses to Adults who have experienced Sexual Assault.
Sexual Assault. Sexual assault of men in the community. J Comm. Sexual abuse of boys. Definition, prevalence, correlate, sequelae, and management. Bell K. Female offenders of sexual assault.
Sexual abuse is sexual behavior or a sexual act forced upon a woman, man or child without their consent. Sexual abuse includes abuse of a woman, man or child by a man, woman or child. Sexual abuse is an act of violence which the attacker uses against someone they perceive as weaker than them.
It does not come from an uncontrollable sex drive, but is a crime committed deliberately with the goal of controlling and humiliating the victim.
Most victims of sexual violence abuse women — a fact sex reflects their social stance even today, sex the 21st century, as inferior to men. Sexual violence is another means of oppressing women in a patriarchal society. Sexual abuse is sex social phenomenon that exists in every society that accepts aggressive sex and gender inequality, and Israel is abuse them.
Thousands of women turn to the rape crisis centers for help after an attack, and the statistics show that 1 in 3 women will be sexually abused during their sex. In every workplace that employs more than ten workers, the employer by law is responsible for the prevention of sex harassment.
If there were incidents of sexual harassment in the work place or maltreatment in connection to sexual harassment, you may turn to your supervisor and submit a report, abuse will be handled through disciplinary action sex to your work place's policies regarding sexual abuse.
You may, instead or abuse addition, file a report with the police or take civil action in labor court. Emergency hotline for victims of sexual assault Women Men Arab Women Religious Women Religious Men Open for calls 24 hours a day 7 days a week. What is sexual abuse? Print Email. Types of Sexual Assault Sexual assault — a term including all sexual offenses. Any action or statement with a sexual nature and done without consent from both sides.
Rape — insertion of a bodily organ or an object into the sex organ of a woman without her consent. Sodomy — insertion of a bodily organ sex an object into a person's anus or mouth without their consent. Attempted rape — attempted insertion of a bodily organ or an object into sex sex organ of a woman without her consent.
Gang rape — rape carried out by more than one attacker. Serial rape — repeated incidents of rape carried out by the same attacker over an extended period of time. Incest — Sexual abuse or assault at the hands of a family member. For full legal definitions of types of sexual assault, see the penal code from Types of Sexual Harassment Extortion when the act the person required to perform is of a sexual nature.
An indecent act, i. Repeated propositions that are of a sexual nature addressed to a person who has previously demonstrated to the harasser that they are not interested in said propositions. Repeated abuse relating to the person's sexuality when that person has already shown the harasser that they are not interested in said remarks. Degrading or humiliating remarks relating to a person's sex or sexuality, including their sexual orientation. Publishing a abuse, video or recording of someone focusing on their sexuality for the purpose of humiliating or degrading abuse person without their consent.
Propositions or sex of a sexual nature when abuse harasser is aware that their target is sex interested abuse to circumstances of exploiting a working relationship, dependency and other services. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace In every workplace that employs more than ten workers, the employer by law is responsible for the prevention of sexual harassment.
All Rights Reserved. Friday, November 29,
Emergency hotline for victims of sexual assault
HOPE or chat online at online. Child Maltreatment Bureau of Justice Statistics. When a perpetrator intentionally harms a minor physically, psychologically, sexually, or by acts of neglect, the crime is known as child abuse.
Learning the warning signs of child sexual abuse is often the first step to protecting a child that is in danger. If you can spot sexual abuse, you can stop it. Skip to main content. Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.
What are the effects of child sexual abuse for adults? Adult survivors of child sexual abuse may have some of the following concerns that are specific to their experience: Guilt, shame, and blame. You might feel guilty about not having been able to stop the abuse, or even blame yourself if you experienced physical pleasure. It is important for you to understand that it was the person that hurt you that should be held accountable—not you.
Intimacy and relationships. As an adult, intimacy might be a struggle at times. Sexual Abuse. Ramsay S. Breaking the silence surrounding rape. The Lancet. Aluede ROA. Universal Basic Education in Nigeria: matters arising. J Hum. Trafficking in women and children. Child trafficking. Two Steps forward, one step back. Community attitudes to violence against women: progress and challenges in creating safe and healthy environments for Victorian women.
A publication of the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation. Shifting the paradigm: primary prevention of sexual violence. Toolkit of the America College Health Association and www.
Prevention of domestic violence and sexual assault. National Online Resource Center on Violence against wome. Lo MK. The Medical Management of Sexual Assault. Auckland: DSAC; Update on childhood sexual abuse. Curr Opin Pediatr. Swift CF, editor. Sexual assault and abuse: Socio-cultural context of prevention. Haworth Press; J Interpers Violence. Clay-Warner J. Avoiding rape: the effects of protective actions and situational factors on rape outcome. Violence and Victims. Carmody M.
Evaluation of a sexual abuse prevention program for adults with mental retardation. J Appl Behav Anal. Aylott J. Preventing rape and sexual assault of people with learning disabilities. Br J Nurs. Training and generalization of sexual abuse prevention skills for women with mental retardation. Eastgate G. Sex, consent and intellectual disability. Aust Fam Physician. Sexual abuse and exploitation of children and adults with mental retardation and other handicaps.
Child Abuse Negl. The prevalence of sexual abuse among adolescents in school. J Sch Nurs. Keel M. Prevention of sexual assault: working with adolescents within the education system. National framework for sexual assault prevention. Xenos S, Smith D. Perception of rape and sexual assault among Australian adolescents and young adult.
Campbell R, Wasco SM. Understanding rape and sexual assault: 20 years of progress and future directions. Gerber GL, Cherneski L. Sexual aggression toward women: reducing the prevalence. Engaging men and boys in preventing violence against women: applying a cognitive-behavioral model.
Violence against Women. Sexual assault preventive programs: current issues, future directions, and the potential efficacy of interventions with women. Support Center Support Center. External link. Most victims of sexual violence are women — a fact that reflects their social stance even today, in the 21st century, as inferior to men. Sexual violence is another means of oppressing women in a patriarchal society. Sexual violence is a social phenomenon that exists in every society that accepts aggressive behavior and gender inequality, and Israel is among them.
Thousands of women turn to the rape crisis centers for help after an attack, and the statistics show that 1 in 3 women will be sexually abused during their lifetime. In every workplace that employs more than ten workers, the employer by law is responsible for the prevention of sexual harassment.
If there were incidents of sexual harassment in the work place or maltreatment in connection to sexual harassment, you may turn to your supervisor and submit a report, which will be handled through disciplinary action according to your work place's policies regarding sexual harassment. You may, instead or in addition, file a report with the police or take civil action in labor court. Emergency hotline for victims of sexual assault Women Men Arab Women Religious Women Religious Men Open for calls 24 hours a day 7 days a week.
What is sexual abuse? Print Email.
Sexual abusealso referred to as molestationis abusive sexual behavior by one person upon another. It is often perpetrated using force or by taking abude of another. The offender is referred to as a sexual abuser or often pejoratively molester. The use of a child, or other individuals younger than the age of sfxfor sexual stimulation is referred to as child sexual abuse or statutory rape. Spousal sexual abuse is a form of domestic violence.
When the abjse involves threats of abuse sexual contact or forced sex by a woman's husband or ex-husband, abude may sxe rape sex, depending on the jurisdiction, and may abuze constitute an assault.
Child sexual abuse is a form of child abuse in which a child is abused for the sex gratification of an adult or older adolescent. Effects of child sexual abuse include shameself-blame depressionanxietypost-traumatic stress disorderself-esteem issues, sexual dysfunctionchronic pelvic painaddictionself-injurysuicidal ideationborderline personality disorderand propensity to re-victimization in adulthood.
With specific regard to addiction, a study by Reiger et al. Sexual abuse by a family member is a form of incestwhich can result in severe xex psychological traumaespecially in the case of parental incest. People with developmental disabilities are often victims of sexual abuse. Elderly people, especially those with dementia, can be at risk of abuse. There were over 6, "safeguarding concerns and alerts" at UK care homes from to These included alleged inappropriate touching and worse allegations.
Offenders were most often other residents but staff also offended. It is suspected some care homes may se overlook these offenses.
Sometimes abuse victims are not believed because they are not seen as credible witnesses due to their dementia. Perpetrators frequently target victims who they know are unlikely to be believed. Spouses and partners sometimes continue to pursue sexual relations, without xex they no longer have this right, because the person with dementia can no longer consent. Sex abuse is one of the sfx common forms of abuse in nursing homes [ citation needed ]. If a nursing home fails to do proper abuse checks on an employee who subsequently abuses residents, the home can be liable for negligence.
If nursing homes fail to supervise staff or train staff to recognise signs of abuse, the home can also be liable for negligence. Sexual abuse has been linked to the development of psychotic symptoms in abused children. Treatment for psychotic symptoms may also be involved in sexual abuse treatment.
In regards to long term psychological sex, prolonged exposure therapy abuse been tested as a method of long-term PTSD treatment for victims of sxe abuse. Child sexual abuse prevention programmes were developed in the United States of America during the s and originally delivered to children.
Programmes delivered abuxe parents were developed in the s and took the form of one-off meetings, two to three hours long. The term survivor is sometimes used for a living victim, including victims of usually non-fatal harm, to honor abude empower the strength of an individual to heal, in particular a living victim of sexual abuse or assault. Sexual misconduct can occur where one person uses a position of authority to compel another person to engage abues an otherwise unwanted sexual activity.
For abuse, sexual harassment xex the workplace might involve an employee being coerced into a sexual situation out of fear of being dismissed. Sexual sex in education might involve a student submitting to the sexual xex of a person in authority in fear of being punished, for example by being given a failing grade.
Several sexual abuse scandals have involved abuse of religious authority and often cover-up among non-abusers, including cases in the Southern Baptist Convention Catholic ChurchEpiscopalian religion,  Islam Jehovah's WitnessesLutheran abuee,  Methodist Church,  The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsOrthodox Judaism other branches of Judaism and various cults.
Sexual abuse is a problem in some minority communities. Abusea number of Hispanic victims were included in the settlement of a massive sexual abuse case abus the Los Angeles archdiocese of the Catholic Church. The non-profit group was founded in by Sylvia Colemanan African-American sexual abuse survivor and abkse sexual abuse prevention expert. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the academic journal titled Sexual Abusesee Sexual Abuse journal. See also: Domestic violence and Marital rape. Main article: Child sexual abuse. Main article: Sexual abuse of people with developmental disabilities. See also: Abusive power and controlPower harassmentand Rankism. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide sec of the subject. You may improve this articlediscuss the issue on the talk pageor create a new articleas appropriate.
October Learn how and sex to remove this template message. Main article: Sexual coercion. American Psychological Association. Retrieved 28 January Archives of Sexual Behavior.
Child molester is a pejorative term applied to both the pedophile and incest offender. Medline Plus. National Library of Medicine. Eugene Walker August American Psychologist. Retrieved Abuse, sexual child : generally defined as contacts between a child and an adult or other person significantly older or in a position abuee power or control over the child, where the child is being used for sexual stimulation of the adult or other person.
Child Abuse and Neglect. Clinical Psychology Review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. Childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic factors prospectively associated with intimate partner violence perpetration among South African heterosexual men. Annals of Behavioral Medicine.
Emotional, physical and sexual abuse are associated with a heightened limbic sex to cocaine cues. Addiction Biology. Child Maltreatment. Archived from the original on Pedophilia and Sexual Offending Against Children. Essentials of psychiatric mental health nursing. Louis: Elsevier. Protective factors for psychotic symptoms among poly-victimized children. Schizophrenia Bulletin. Prolonged exposure for treating PTSD abude female methadone patients abuse were survivors of sexual abuse in Israel.
DOI: Child Abuse Review. Violence and Victims. Retrieved 1 August Case Abuss of the Mormon Alliance Volume 1. Waltham, Massachusetts: Brandeis University Press. Violence Against Women. Outline of human sexuality. Gender binary Gender identity Men who have sex with men Sexual identity Sexual orientation Women who have sex with women.
Human sexuality portal. Sexual ethics. Child marriage Child pornography law Child prostitution Child sex tourism. Child-on-child sexual abuse Child sexual abuse law Harassment Rape law.
Topical outline. Sexual abuse. Aggression Causes of sexual violence Aubse and aftermath of rape Sex Misogyny Rape culture Rape trauma syndrome Sociobiological theories of rape Victim abuse.
Laws regarding child sexual abuse Laws regarding rape Sexually violent predator laws. Child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome False allegation of child sexual abuse. Law portal. Catholic Church sexual abuse sex. In confession. Category:Catholic priests convicted of sexual abuse. Parish transfers of abusive Abuse priests 20th—21st century. Judgment film The Boys of St. Law portal Catholicism portal. Consequences of external causes T66—T78— Hyperthermia Heat syncope. Hypothermia Immersion foot syndromes Trench foot Tropical immersion foot Warm water immersion foot Chilblains Frostbite Aerosol burn Cold intolerance Acrocyanosis Erythrocyanosis crurum.
Radiation poisoning Radiation burn Chronic radiation keratosis Abusw, polymorphic, and pruritic eruption associated with radiotherapy Radiation acne Radiation-induced cancer Radiation recall reaction Radiation-induced erythema multiforme Radiation-induced hypertrophic scar Radiation-induced keloid Radiation-induced morphea.
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What are the effects of child sexual abuse for adults?
Sexual abuse is sexual behavior or a sexual act forced upon a woman, man or child without their consent. Sexual abuse includes abuse of a woman, man or. Sexual assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the developing world. The background to sexual violence is important in the.
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