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Sex and the City 2 is a American romantic comedy film written, co-produced, and directed by Michael Patrick King. A third Sex and the City film was announced inbut it was cancelled the following year. CarrieSamanthaCharlotteand Miranda meet up. In the present, three of the four women are married but Samantha, aged 52, is desperately trying to keep her libido alive with the help of Suzanne Somers and her team of doctors to keep her menopause at bay.

The four of them attend Anthony and Stanford's wedding, where Carrie serves as "best man". Miranda quits her job after her firm's misogynistic new managing partner disrespects her once too often. Charlotte's two children are a handful, mostly her two-year-old daughter Rose's extreme and constant crying, and she is worried that Harry is attracted to their buxom Irish nanny, Erin.

Carrie's marriage to Mr. Big has settled down, although they differ on how to spend their spare time. Carrie wants to go out often to dinner, parties and big events, whereas Big sex to stay in and relax on the couch. However, Big starts to watch TV more often, making Carrie feel unappreciated. In response she stays at her old apartment for two days to write an article.

After her return, Big acts the way he did while they were first dating and they both enjoy a romantic night out. He enjoys it so much he suggests to Carrie that they take two days off every week, he can go somewhere for those two days to relax, watch TV and lie on the couch and the rest of the time he will have more energy to do what she wants to do.

Carrie does not dismiss this, but is very hurt by the suggestion and worries it means they will drift apart. Meanwhile, Samantha is to devise a PR campaign for an Arab sheikh 's business. Charlotte is worried about leaving her husband alone with the nanny. But Miranda, unfettered by a job for the first time in her life, is especially excited. Upon entering Abu Dhabi, Samantha's hormone-enhancing drugs are confiscated under United Arab Emirates law, rendering her devoid of estrogen and hindering her libido.

Charlotte tries to call Harry every few minutes; Miranda revels in the culture surrounding her; and Carrie befriends her manservant, Gaurau, who is an underpaid temporary worker from India. Carrie runs into her former lover, Aidan. The dinner is very enjoyable, with the two discussing old times. Aidan remarks on the ways Carrie is "not like other women". In a moment of remembered passion, they kiss.

Carrie runs away in panic and returns to her hotel, where Miranda and Charlotte have drinks together and discuss the difficulties of motherhood.

When Carrie wonders whether she should tell Big about the kiss, as they have no secrets between them, Miranda reflects on when her husband Steve told her about his affair. Samantha counsels Carrie to wait before deciding anything. Carrie opts to call Big to tell him. Big is silent upon hearing the news, and after saying a few words, hangs up. The four women find their Western style and attitudes sex with Muslim customs.

For example, while on a date with a handsome Danish architect, Samantha is arrested for public indecency after fondling him at a restaurant, giving him an erection in public and making out with him on the beach. With the Sheikh's intervention, Samantha is released but is left with a permanent police record. To make matters worse, the Sheikh cancels the PR meeting and ceases paying for the remainder of the women's luxurious stay.

They quickly pack their bags and leave, but must return to the souq to find Carrie's passport that she accidentally left there on noticing Aidan. When Samantha's attitude incites a mob among the locals, the women are rescued by a group of Emirati women sex share their sense of style under their black robes.

They escape wearing Abaya and make it to the airport in time. When Carrie returns home, she finds the bedroom TV removed and Big gone. She passes an anxious day, at the end of which he returns. Big tells her that although he was torn, he realises that what she needs is something to remind her sex all times that she is married.

He hands her a jewellery box, which reveals an engagement ring set with a black diamond. When Carrie asks him why a black diamond, he says, "Because you're not like anyone else", echoing Aidan's earlier comment, showing he does appreciate her and they have not lost their spark. Big and Carrie combine their interests; Charlotte's nanny, Erin, turns out to be a lesbian and no threat to her marriage; Miranda finds a new job at a more laid-back and diverse law firm where she is appreciated; and Samantha remains unchanged, and even meets for sex on the beach with the Danish architect, this time in the Hamptons.

After months of speculation, the cast confirmed in February that a sequel was in the works. Filming began in August The sequel is noticeably different from its predecessor, and includes more exotic locales than the original.

King credits this to the experience he had promoting the original film in such locales. He was also inspired by the recession to write something bigger more akin to the extravagant adventures and escapist comedies of the s.

In addition, Michael Patrick King wrote and directed again, and Patricia Field once again took charge of the costumes and wardrobe. Hats were once again created by Prudence Millinery for Vivienne Westwood.

Consequently, the Abu Dhabi segment of the film was filmed in Morocco. Filming took place at several locations including the seaside town of Sidi Kaouki[13] and Amanjenaoutside of Marrakesh.

The sequel officially began filming on September 1,and continued until the end of the year. In SeptemberAmerican singer and actress Liza Minnelli confirmed to several media outlets that she appeared in a cameo role. Singer and actress Bette Midler had been photographed on set, but does not appear in the film. On October 17, Oceanup. John Corbett was seen on location in Morocco, confirming his speculated involvement in the film as Aidan.

Promotion began in Decemberwhen the official teaser poster was released online, featuring Carrie in a white dress and gold sunglasses which reflect a Moroccan backdrop, and the tagline "Carrie On", a similar pun of the lead character's name as "Get Carried Away" from the first film. The teaser trailer premiered online on December 22, A full-scale promotional tour with all key cast members—including television, press conference and print—commenced in early Mayand continued throughout the film's release, encompassing many different countries and cities.

The New York City premiere of the film was held on May 24, The film was criticized for its portrayal of the Middle East. Lindy West wrote a noted [29] [30] review of the film, saying that " SATC2 takes everything that I hold dear as a woman and as a human—working hard, contributing to society, not being an entitled cunt like it's my job—and rapes it to death with a stiletto that costs more than my car.

It is minutes long, which means that I entered the theater in the bloom of youth and emerged with a family of field mice living in my long, white mustache. This is an entirely inappropriate length for what is essentially a home video of gay men playing with giant Barbie dolls.

Toronto academic Mitu Sengupta said the film exploited women's and gay rights and "pitifully" turned them into "badges of national honor" and "smug patriotic pride". She sex "What's really worrying about Sex and the City 2 is not its Orientalism or crass materialism, but how easily this seemingly benign bubble-gum flick ends up fighting a very macho war of global one-upmanship on the bodies of women and gay men.

According to Razzies founder John J. Wilson"[Eigenberg] said that he had never won an award of any kind and if this was what he won, he would accept it.

Sex and the City 2 opened in 3, theaters on May 27,setting a record for one of the widest release for a R-rated romantic comedy film. Internationally the sequel topped the charts in Germany for five weeks, Britain for three weeks, Australia for two weeks and exceeding the original in Japan and Greece.

Sex and the City 2 sold more tickets than the first part in many other markets. Sex and the City 2 was released on DVDBlu-rayand iTunes on October 26,in the US [43] where it entered the chart at number one selling almost one million copies in its first week.

The score was recorded and mixed by Dennis S. Patrick Kirst also orchestrated. In DecemberRadar Sex reported that a script for the third film had been approved. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Theatrical release poster. Chris Stein Deborah Harry. Dido R. Armstrong Sister Bliss. Cee Lo Green Faheem Najm. Badu James Poyser. Atlas John Reynolds Justin Adams.

Al Shux Keys. Salaam Remi Claude Kelly. Helen Reddy Ray Burton. Sex Loewe Alan Jay Lerner. Jerry Bock Sheldon Harnick. Richard Rodgers Lorenz Hart. Tom Kelly Billy Steinberg. This section needs additional citations for sex. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October 4, The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 11, British Board of Film Classification.

May 13, Retrieved June 19,


Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. This chapter reviews the information sfx through decades of sexual harassment research. It provides definitions of key terms that will be used throughout the report, establishing a common framework from the research literature and the law for discussing these issues.

In reviewing what sexual harassment research has learned over time, the chapter also examines the research methods for studying sexual harassment and the appropriate methods for conducting this research in a reliable way. The chapter provides information on the prevalence of sexual harassment and common characteristics of how sexual harassment is perpetrated and sex across lines of industry, occupation, and social class.

It concludes l common characteristics of environments where sexual harassment is more likely to occur. Sdx harassment was first recognized in cases in which women lost their jobs because they rejected sexual overtures from their employers e. Costle 1. Soon it was recognized in employment law that pervasive sexist behavior from coworkers can create odious conditions of employment—what became known as a hostile work environment —and also constitute illegal sex Farley ; MacKinnon ; Williams v.

Saxbe 2. These two basic forms of sexual harassment, quid pro quo and hostile environment harassment, were summarized in guidelines issued by the Wex Employment Opportunity Commission in USEEOC Hostile work or educational environments can be created u behaviors such as addressing women in crude or objectifying terms, posting pornographic images in the o, and by making demeaning or derogatory statements about women, such as telling anti-female jokes.

Jackson ; 3 Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson 4. An important distinction between quid pro quo and hostile environment harassment is that the former usually involves a one-on-one sfx in which the perpetrator has control of employment- or educational-related rewards sexx punishments over the target. In contrast, the latter can involve many perpetrators and many targets. In the hostile environment form of sexual harassment, coworkers often exhibit a pattern of hostile sex behavior toward multiple targets over an extended period of time Holland and Cortina For hostile sex-related or gender-related behavior to be considered illegal sexual harassment, it must be pervasive or severe enough to be judged as having had a negative impact upon the work or educational environment.

Therefore, isolated or single instances of such behavior typically qualify ssex when they are judged to be sufficiently severe. Legal scholars and judges continue to use the two subtype definitions of quid pro eex and hostile environment to define sexual xex. Illegal sexual harassment falls under the umbrella of a sex comprehensive category, discriminatory behavior.

Illegal discrimination can occur on the basis of any legally protected category: race, ethnicity, religious creed, age, sex, ses identity, marital status, national origin, ancestry, sexual orientation, genetic information, physical or mental disabilities, veteran status, prior conviction of a crime, gender identity or expression, or membership in other protected classes set forth in state or federal law.

Regarding sexual harassment, the focus of this report, this includes gender harassment dex, a term designed to emphasize that harmful or. CostleF. SaxbeF. JacksonF. VinsonU. Sexual harassment constitutes discrimination because it is harmful and it is based on gender—it is not necessarily motivated by sexual desire nor does it need to involve sexual activity.

Sexual harassment in the form of gender harassment can be based on the ses of cultural gender stereotypes. While a sex may be gender harassed for taking a job traditionally held sex a man or in a traditionally male field.

Subsequent sections of this report discuss gender harassment in greater detail. Psychologists who study gender-related behavior have developed more nuanced terms to describe sexual harassment in sx to dex precisely measure and account for the behaviors that constitute sexual harassment and to describe how targets experience those wex.

A three-part classification system divides sexual harassment into distinct but related categories: sexual coercionunwanted sexual attentionand gender harassment see Figure ; Fitzgerald eex al. Sexual coercion entails sexual advances, and srx the conditions of employment or education, for students contingent upon sexual cooperation.

Unwanted sexual attention also entails sexual advances, but it does not add professional rewards or threats to force compliance. Sez this category are expressions of romantic or sexual interest that are unwelcome, unreciprocated, and offensive to the target; examples include unwanted touching, hugging, stroking, and persistent requests for dates or sexual behavior despite discouragement, and can include assault Cortina, Koss, and Cook ; Fitzgerald, Gelfand, and Drasgow ; Fitzgerald, Swan, and Magley Gender harassment is by far the most common type of sexual harassment.

Gender harassment is further defined as two types: sexist hostility and crude harassment. Examples of the sexist hostility form of gender harassment for women include.

Sex crude harassment form of gender harassment is defined as the use of sexually crude terms that denigrate people based on their gender e. Both women and men can and do experience all three forms of sexual harassment, but some subgroups face higher rates than others. For example. Interestingly, the motivation underlying sexual coercion and unwanted sexual attention behaviors appears different from the motivation underlying gender harassment.

Whereas the first two categories suggest sexual advances the goal being sexual exploitation of womenthe third category is expressing hostility toward women the goals being insult, humiliation, or ostracism Holland and Cortina However, it is important to note that these come-on behaviors are not necessarily about attraction ses women; more often than not, they are xex motivated by the desire to devalue women or punish those who violate gender norms Berdahl b ; Cortina and Berdahl Some researchers further define the verbal insults sdx with gender harassment, along with accompanying nonverbal affronts, as microaggressions.

This term can also be broken down into three categories: microassaults, microinsults, and microinvalidations Sue ssx al. There is some concern that microaggression remains a poorly defined construct, with porous boundaries. Additionally, the use of the term micro is misleading, as it implies all these experiences are minor or imperceptible acts. Yet some microaggressions, such as referring to people by using offensive names, are obviously offensive and can be o damaging.

Similarly the root word aggression is also misleading, as most experts reserve this term for behavior that carries intent to harm Lilienfeld For these reasons, our committee chose to focus on incivilitya term in greater use in the workplace aggression literature.

The authors argue. Lim and Cortina point out that if sexual harassment is tolerated in an organization or not seen as a deviant behavior, incidents of general incivility would be expected to be even less likely to receive attention from management. Based on these findings, it could be argued that generalized incivility should be a red flag for leadership or management dex work and education environments, because when gender harassment occurs, it is virtually always in environments with high rates of uncivil conduct Cortina et al.

For example, it can include pornography being displayed in a common area or sexually abusive language being used publicly in the work sex education environment Parker Ambient unwanted sexual attention and sexual coercion refer to observed instances of unwanted sexual pursuit, targeted at a fellow employee.

In other words, one need not be personally targeted to feel the effects of sexual harassment much like second-hand smoke. Despite refined definitions and terms to describe sexual harassment and gender discrimination, documenting the degree of these behaviors in work and education environments remains challenging. This is in part because individuals experiencing these behaviors rarely label them as such.

Considering these sources, the report uses the following definition of sexual harassment:. Sexual harassment a form of discrimination is composed of k categories of behavior: 1 gender harassment verbal and nonverbal behaviors that convey hostility, objectification, exclusion, or second-class status about members of one gender2 unwanted sexual attention verbal or physical unwelcome sexual advances, which can include assaultand 3 sexual coercion when favorable professional or educational treatment is conditioned on sexual activity.

Harassing behavior can be either direct targeted at an individual or ambient a general level of sexual harassment in sex environment. Box provides a quick review of the key terms introduced in this chapter. The goal of providing recommendations for preventing sexual harassment and mitigating its effects in academic science, engineering, and medicine requires evidence-based research.

Different studies have different strengths and weaknesses, and these should be kept in mind when reviewing their findings, particularly if leaders in academic institutions, legislators, and researchers hope to design meaningful and effective interventions and policies.

The two most commonly used study methods are surveys and laboratory experiments. Important findings have also emerged using in-depth interviews, case studies, sociolegal analyses, and other methods. When conducting or reviewing research examining sexual harassment, it is crucial that the methods used to conduct the research match the goals for the research.

It is crucial to note that zex prevalence of sexual harassment in a population is best estimated using representative surveys and not srx relying on the invariably lower number of official reports of sexual harassment made to an organization see the discussion in Chapter 4 about how rare it is for women to formally k their experience.

The next sections discuss these various research methods and the kind of information they provide. Surveys, containing well-validated instruments, can srx useful in estimating the prevalence how common sexual harassment experiences or behaviors are among people in a given population and determining correlates, antecedents, outcomes, and factors that attenuate or amplify outcomes from sexual harassment.

Basing a survey on a defined population accessible from a comprehensive list, or sample frame, can sx helpful. Sometimes, too, using multiple instruments and data sources can be a highly effective approach. Sexx surveys have often focused on the targets of sexually harassing sfx e. Conducting surveys on sexual harassment is challenging, but fortunately researchers have sez many of these challenges.

Those wishing to conduct a survey on sexual harassment ought to follow the scientific methods described below and the ethical and safety guidelines for this type of research WHO Poorly conducting surveys on sexual harassment is unethical because responding to the survey could needlessly retraumatize the respondent. Additionally, the resulting inaccurate data from such k survey could be used to question the importance and legitimacy of such an important and sensitive topic WHO This illustrates what other research has shown: that in both the law and the lay public, the dominant understandings of sexual harassment overemphasize two forms of sexual harassment, sexual coercion and unwanted sexual attention, while downplaying the third most common type—gender harassment see Figure ; Leskinen, Cortina, and Kabat ; Schultz Regardless of whether women self-label their experiences as sexual harassment or not, they all have similar negative psychological and professional xex Magley, Hulin, et al.

This labeling issue was first identified in research on rape and sexual violence. Subsequent studies of sexual harassment found similar results Ilies et al. With extensive psychometric evidence supporting it, the SEQ has become the gold standard in the assessment of sexx harassment experiences in both work and school settings Cortina and Berdahl Unfortunately, some recent studies attempting to measure the prevalence of sexual harassment have not followed this good practice and are thus likely to have low prevalence rates, be missing data about those who have experienced gender harassment, and as a result be unreliable for evaluating the prevalence of sexual harassment.

To encourage open self-reports, it is important that survey responses are confidential, if not anonymous, srx to reassure survey participants that this is the case. Additionally, to help avoid a nonresponse bias i.

In a meta-analytic review of the incidence of sexual harassment in the United States, Ilies and colleagues found that directly asking respondents whether they had experienced sexual harassment as opposed to using questionnaires that. When determining prevalence estimates, attention must be given to minimizing nonresponse biases in the survey sample.

Nonresponse biases include attitudes and other characteristics that disincline people from survey participation Krosnick et al. A reluctance to answer questions about sexually harassing experiences could represent a nonresponse bias. While low response rates are not synonymous with low u of nonresponse bias, generally low response rates should be interpreted with caution and will raise limitations on what 22 can be drawn because of the representativeness of the survey sample Dillman, Smyth, and Christian ; Ilies et al.

Just as it sex important to be cautious about deriving prevalence estimates from samples with lower response wex, researchers and leaders in academic institutions must also be judicious when deriving such estimates from nonprobability samples aex Yeager, Krosnick, and Javitz [] for a discussion of the problems with opt-in dex surveys.

A challenge for any survey ssex is particularly important se sexual harassment surveys is their ability to gather information about nonmajority members of a given workplace or campus. Often women of color and sexual- and gender-minority women have been underrepresented among survey respondents, resulting in unreliable prevalence rates for these specific populations. Recent research is beginning to address this by looking at sexual harassment through the lens of intersectionality and by working to oversample these underrepresented populations sex conducting surveys.

Convenience sampling in which participants are recruited from social media or specialized groups with a specific target group in mind and snowball sampling recruiting additional subjects by asking participants who else they know in their networks who would also know about the topic are useful means of recruiting hard-to-reach or underrepresented populations e.

These studies can yield critical insights, even though the samples cannot be considered representative of a particular population.

It is crucial to note that the prevalence of sexual harassment in a population is best estimated using representative surveys and not by relying on the invariably lower number of official reports of sexual harassment made to an organization see the discussion in Chapter 4 about how rare it is for women to formally report their experience.

The next sections discuss these various research methods and the kind of information they provide. Surveys, containing well-validated instruments, can be useful in estimating the prevalence how common sexual harassment experiences or behaviors are among people in a given population and determining correlates, antecedents, outcomes, and factors that attenuate or amplify outcomes from sexual harassment.

Basing a survey on a defined population accessible from a comprehensive list, or sample frame, can be helpful. Sometimes, too, using multiple instruments and data sources can be a highly effective approach. Though surveys have often focused on the targets of sexually harassing behavior e.

Conducting surveys on sexual harassment is challenging, but fortunately researchers have addressed many of these challenges.

Those wishing to conduct a survey on sexual harassment ought to follow the scientific methods described below and the ethical and safety guidelines for this type of research WHO Poorly conducting surveys on sexual harassment is unethical because responding to the survey could needlessly retraumatize the respondent. Additionally, the resulting inaccurate data from such a survey could be used to question the importance and legitimacy of such an important and sensitive topic WHO This illustrates what other research has shown: that in both the law and the lay public, the dominant understandings of sexual harassment overemphasize two forms of sexual harassment, sexual coercion and unwanted sexual attention, while downplaying the third most common type—gender harassment see Figure ; Leskinen, Cortina, and Kabat ; Schultz Regardless of whether women self-label their experiences as sexual harassment or not, they all have similar negative psychological and professional outcomes Magley, Hulin, et al.

This labeling issue was first identified in research on rape and sexual violence. Subsequent studies of sexual harassment found similar results Ilies et al. With extensive psychometric evidence supporting it, the SEQ has become the gold standard in the assessment of sexual harassment experiences in both work and school settings Cortina and Berdahl Unfortunately, some recent studies attempting to measure the prevalence of sexual harassment have not followed this good practice and are thus likely to have low prevalence rates, be missing data about those who have experienced gender harassment, and as a result be unreliable for evaluating the prevalence of sexual harassment.

To encourage open self-reports, it is important that survey responses are confidential, if not anonymous, and to reassure survey participants that this is the case. Additionally, to help avoid a nonresponse bias i. In a meta-analytic review of the incidence of sexual harassment in the United States, Ilies and colleagues found that directly asking respondents whether they had experienced sexual harassment as opposed to using questionnaires that. When determining prevalence estimates, attention must be given to minimizing nonresponse biases in the survey sample.

Nonresponse biases include attitudes and other characteristics that disincline people from survey participation Krosnick et al. A reluctance to answer questions about sexually harassing experiences could represent a nonresponse bias. While low response rates are not synonymous with low levels of nonresponse bias, generally low response rates should be interpreted with caution and will raise limitations on what conclusions can be drawn because of the representativeness of the survey sample Dillman, Smyth, and Christian ; Ilies et al.

Just as it is important to be cautious about deriving prevalence estimates from samples with lower response rates, researchers and leaders in academic institutions must also be judicious when deriving such estimates from nonprobability samples see Yeager, Krosnick, and Javitz [] for a discussion of the problems with opt-in internet surveys.

A challenge for any survey that is particularly important for sexual harassment surveys is their ability to gather information about nonmajority members of a given workplace or campus. Often women of color and sexual- and gender-minority women have been underrepresented among survey respondents, resulting in unreliable prevalence rates for these specific populations.

Recent research is beginning to address this by looking at sexual harassment through the lens of intersectionality and by working to oversample these underrepresented populations when conducting surveys. Convenience sampling in which participants are recruited from social media or specialized groups with a specific target group in mind and snowball sampling recruiting additional subjects by asking participants who else they know in their networks who would also know about the topic are useful means of recruiting hard-to-reach or underrepresented populations e.

These studies can yield critical insights, even though the samples cannot be considered representative of a particular population. A good example of this approach is the recent study about the experiences of women of color in the fields of astronomy and planetary science, identified via convenience sampling. The researchers found that women of color were more likely to report hearing sexist remarks from supervisors or peers in the workplace than did white women, white men, or men of color.

Women of color were also more likely to feel unsafe at work because of their gender Clancy et al. This study shows how survey data can be used to test relationships among important variables such as race,. These samples can include convenience samples and snowball samples.

When determining and comparing prevalence rates, it is important to distinguish the prevalence rates for women separate from men and not to rely on a combined prevalence for both genders.

Relying on combined rates will result in a lower rate because women are much more likely to experience sexual harassment than men USMSPB ; Magley, Waldo, et al.

Another methodological feature to be particularly attentive to when estimating and comparing prevalence rates is the time period respondents are asked about. In some studies, no time limit is given, while others may limit it to the last 12 or 24 months.

The longer the time period, the more likely the rates will be skewed and not assess current incidence. Longer time periods can result in higher incidence rates because more time means more women are likely to have experienced such behavior. However, after long enough periods, memory deterioration sets in, leaving behind only those sexual harassment experiences that left a lasting memory, and leaving out everyday sexist comments or ambient harassment.

Additionally, longer time periods can also introduce the risk that the incident could have occurred at a past environment, not the current one under investigation.

Lastly, a key obstacle to obtaining accurate prevalence numbers across academia and between fields or workplaces is the number of surveys available that do not always use a standardized method for measuring or defining sexual harassment. Unfortunately, when institutions make their decisions about which survey or questions to use, they often do not seem to be aware of good practices in sexual harassment research or to have consulted with a sexual harassment researcher, because different methodologies and measurement approaches have been used Wood et al.

The largest concern when comparing prevalence rates is differences in how sexual harassment is defined in the survey and during the analysis of the responses. This research also demonstrates that these differences were not due to differences in work environments or to sampling method Ilies et al.

To try to present the most accurate information on the prevalence of sexual harassment, the report references surveys that follow good practices in both. Another way that information has been gathered about sexual harassment has been through laboratory experiments, in which researchers examine the occurrence of sexually harassing behaviors by manipulating variables under controlled conditions. The advantage of this approach is that researchers can directly observe sexually harassing behavior.

This approach, however, does not provide information on the prevalence of sexual harassment. Some of the behaviors that have been directly observed in experiments include the following:.

Laboratory experiments can help uncover situational factors that encourage or discourage potential perpetrators from engaging in sexually harassing behavior. For instance, experiments show that sexual harassment is less likely to occur if those behaviors are not accepted by authority figures Pryor, LaVite, and Stoller Another experiment found that men exposed to sexist television portrayals of women were more likely to send sexist jokes to women in an online interaction Galdi, Maass, and Cadinu Laboratory experiments can also provide a snapshot of how women might respond in a sexually harassing situation.

For example, research by Woodzicka and LaFrance reveals the difference between how women think they would respond and how they do respond. In the first study, college women were asked to imagine how they would respond to being asked sexist questions during a job interview. In the second study, women participated in what they thought to be an actual job interview where such questions were asked.

Results showed a disconnect between what women thought they would do get angry, confront, and complain and what they actually did become fearful, neither confront nor complain.

On the other hand, there are also limitations to laboratory experiments. While they can reveal responses to actual behaviors, those reactions occur in an artificial laboratory setting not a real professional or educational setting, with people who have real relationships, interdependencies, status hierarchies, etc. Participants in experiments are often college students who have limited work experience and diversity primarily white, middle class, under the age of Also, experiments provide a snapshot of only one moment of time, providing a single look at behaviors and responses.

Surveys and accounts from litigants in sexual harassment cases suggest that the worst cases of sexual harassment are not isolated incidents, but something that takes place over a period of time Cantalupo and Kidder a , b , which experiments cannot assess. Qualitative research offers a wide range of methodologies that can be useful in understanding sexual harassment, though it is best known for individual, semi-structured interviews Bazeley Qualitative research can also be conducted in focus groups, bringing together similar constituencies in order to facilitate conversations among participants.

Several social science disciplines also use ethnographic or autoethnographic methods. Ethnography is a systematic way of participating and observing in particular settings or cultures to answer research questions about the intersection of culture and lived experience, where autoethnography invites researchers to reflect on their personal experiences, and connect those experiences to a wider research question. For instance, much of the early work on sexual harassment in the field sciences was either interviews or autoethnography, particularly among cultural anthropologists, who often conduct their field work alone e.

Qualitative approaches also include textual analysis of existing primary sources e. Case study data is often collected via interview, the difference being that rather than interviewing a large enough number to achieve saturation, a researcher will go for greater depth with each participant to construct a more detailed narrative e. Qualitative approaches are widely recognized as the method of choice for generating insight into complex phenomena, the contexts in which they occur, and their consequences Cho, Crenshaw, and McCall Such methods are thought to be particularly well suited to providing key background information and highlighting the experiences and perceptions of targets of oppression, such as those who have experienced sexual harassment.

The approach also gives a voice to perspectives that tend not to be heard or to those with experiences that have few precedents in prior research Sofaer Sociolegal studies is an interdisciplinary field in which scholars use all the research methods described above surveys, experiments, interviews, case studies, ethnography to study a wide range of topics about formal laws, law-like systems of rules, and the social and political relationships that help constitute what law is Banakar and Travers Legal research methods are also a part of sociolegal methods, and these include doctrinal analysis, legal history and doctrinal development studies, and answering questions about exactly what formal legal rules exist across jurisdictions and interrelated areas of law, where there is often ambiguity and conflict.

Sociolegal scholars are, of course, attentive to what formal rules and laws actually exist with sexual harassment, it is Title VII and Title IX doctrines , but a starting approach is to presume that what law is and how it works is much more complex than doctrinal study alone can reveal.

Sociolegal research methods tend to be based in the empirical, observational social sciences supported by legal research. Classic studies using these methods have documented how ordinary people generally resolve their disputes using local customs and norms rather than formal law Macaulay ; Ellickson ; how bringing a personal injury claim in a small community is a mark of outsider, subordinated status Engel ; and how difficult it can be for people who have experienced discrimination to use legal protections, because doing so causes them to feel victimized again Bumiller These types of sociolegal studies share the strengths and limitations of ethnographic and qualitative research methods generally: on the one hand, they can capture the rich contextual detail of a particular setting, group of people, and set of relationships, but on the other hand, they are limited in time and location, and do not yield broadly generalizable claims.

Nonetheless, decades of research using these methods have yielded a considerable body of research that strongly suggests that what the formal law is and what people understand it to be are often quite far apart; that using formal systems to make claims about wrongs done to them is a very difficult thing for most people to do, though it can be empowering and produce social change; and that laws and the legal system typically support existing power structures rather than fundamentally reshape them Freeman ; Edelman ; Berrey, Nelson, and Nielsen A sociolegal research method requires study of the law at many levels of experience to approach sexual harassment, for example, because it matters just as much what women think they deserve or will likely get as what the law formally offers them.

Whether something in a science, engineering, and medicine. The tip-of-the-iceberg problem is the recognition by researchers that published legal disputes are a very skewed and systematically unrepresentative sample from the universe of disputes. Their analysis of published and unpublished district court opinions suggests that cases that reach the stage of a published judicial opinion may concern newer areas of case law or more dramatic or unusual circumstances that help explain why these cases were not disposed of earlier and before they appear for researchers to find.

Publication as a legal outcome is one of the only ways a sexual harassment case could come to be known and studied, but there are many more legally protected routes to keeping cases and their outcomes from view. Confidential settlements, nondisclosure agreements, confidential notations in an academic or employment record, and dispositions of complaints that are not written down are all outcomes that cannot be studied, tracked, counted, or assessed.

Even when legal scholars attempt to collect samples of hundreds of sexual harassment claims, such as Ann Juliano and Stewart J. Juliano and Schwab found that the most successful cases involved sexual conduct directed at a specific target in a mostly male workplace that the target had complained about but which the employer had failed to respond to with any formal process Juliano and Schwab , Cantalupo and Kidder find more physical as opposed to verbal harassment conduct and more evidence of serial harassers in documented complaints than survey researchers have found, for example.

Even if they are not based in representative samples of cases and thus cannot be used to generalize about harassment rates, studies such as these can still yield important research conclusions about sexual harassment adjudications and judicial attitudes toward them. Studies on sexual harassment from the s through today continue to show that sexual harassment of women is widespread in workplaces and that the rates of sexual harassment have not significantly decreased.

Studies have also identified common characteristics of sexual harassment in different workplaces and uncovered characteristics of workplaces that are associated with higher rates of sexual harassment.

This section and the next one review what research can tell us about the trends in sexual harassment rates over time and what the common characteristics are of sexual harassment and sexually harassing environments. Wherever possible, the report cites the most recent scientific studies of a topic. That said, the empirical research into sexual harassment, using rigorous scientific methods, dates back to the s. This report cites conclusions from the earlier work when those results reveal historical trends or patterns over time.

It also cites results from earlier studies when there is no theoretical reason to expect findings to have changed with the passage of time. For example, the inverse relationship between sexual harassment and job satisfaction is a robust one: the more an individual is harassed on the job, the less she or he likes that job. That basic finding has not changed over the course of 30 years, and there is no reason to expect that it will. To access the trends in prevalence for sexual harassment, ideally we would examine longitudinal data that uses a well-validated behavior-based instrument for different workplaces and industries; unfortunately, this data is not available.

The U. Merit System Protection Board USMSPB was one of the first organizations to study sexual harassment, with a focus on the federal workforce, which includes a variety of job types and workplace environments. The USMSPB surveys, conducted in , , , and , asked scientifically selected samples of federal workers about their experiences of specific forms of sexual harassment 7 at work in the past 24 months.

These surveys used behavioral questions; however, they did not use the SEQ, and in earlier years the survey did not ask about nonsexualized forms of gender harassment such as sexist comments, which are known to be the most common form of sexual harassment Kabat-Farr and Cortina As a result, this is not a good source of longitudinal data covering all three forms of sexual harassment.

The original six categories remained consistent throughout the years. The percentage of men who believe that pressuring a female coworker for sexual favors is sexual harassment rose from 65 percent in to 93 percent in and to 97 percent in Likewise, the percentage of men who perceived unwanted sexual remarks in the workplace as being sexual harassment rose from 42 percent in to 64 percent in and to 94 percent in It is also significant to note that of respondents experiencing sexual harassing behaviors in the survey, only about 11 percent took any kind of formal action, such as filing a complaint or report with their organization USMSPB As the results just discussed demonstrate, this lack of reporting was not due to respondents inaccurately defining sexual harassment; rather, it reflects a reluctance by people to take formal action, which will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 4.

Starting in and going to 8 the Defense Manpower Data Center DMDC has used an SEQ-format survey that asked about more than 20 specific sex- or gender-related behaviors experienced in the past 12 months. As shown in the results in Table , the data demonstrate that the prevalence of all three types of sexual harassment has been consistent. Sex and the City by Candace Bushnell. Big" Preston Steve Brady Others. Sex and the City soundtrack Sex and the City 2.

Maisel , season 1 The Kominsky Method , season 1 Categories : American television seasons Sex and the City. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Promotional poster. List of Sex and the City episodes. Michael Patrick King. Carrie meets "the new Yankee ", Joe, at a baseball game, all the while preparing for her first post-breakup encounter with Big.

Miranda gets fed up with the girls always talking about men. Samantha gets frustrated with James's "deficiencies". Charlotte dates a guy named Paul Ericson who has a tendency to adjust his package Carrie accidentally suggests that her friend Susan Sharon leave her domineering, violent husband. Miranda builds up the courage to talk dirty in bed. Charlotte tries to replace the perfect man with the perfect dog. Samantha gets dragged to couples' therapy with James and tries to avoid talking about her real problem with their sex life.

Carrie turns freakish herself after dating a string of freaky guys and freaks out the very normal Ben when trying to discover his secret freakiness. Miranda dates "Manhattan Guy," a guy who hasn't left Manhattan in ten years. Charlotte dates the renowned "Mr. Pussy" and tries to make a real relationship out of it.

Samantha decides to get plastic surgery and freaks out during the consult. John David Coles. Miranda fakes orgasms with her current boyfriend. Charlotte starts dating her handyman. Samantha dates a club owner, who calls them a "we" right away. Carrie starts seeing Mr.

Miranda buys her own apartment on the Upper West Side. Charlotte meets a recent widower at a cemetery. Samantha's actions with a married man gets her in trouble with the New York high-society "ladies who lunch" and only a titanic star can help her out.

Victoria Hochberg. Carrie gets fed up with Big's inability to pay attention to her. Miranda inadvertently sets her interior designer up with a long-distance would-be boyfriend, and they marry after only four weeks. Charlotte has a "warp speed" relationship with a guy she meets at the wedding.

In a fifth-season look back at the best of the first four seasons, the St. Paul Pioneer Press named this episode 5 on its list of 10 essential Sex and the City episodes, observing "If you're puzzled by the pull the often-slimy Mr.

Big has over Carrie, this episode reveals his charm. Alan Taylor. Carrie tries to get Big to stop checking out other women when they're together.

Miranda and Steve's opposite schedules become a problem. Samantha runs into an old hockey-player boyfriend who is now a blonde drag queen named Samantha.

Allison Anders. Carrie gets fed up with high society while at an Upper East Side party with Big. Miranda and Steve have an argument over money and social status. Charlotte meets Wiley Ford, the movie star and joins his entourage. Samantha dates a wealthy real-estate developer with a Southeast Asian live-in servant who has her master wrapped around her little finger.

This is an entirely inappropriate length for what is essentially a home video of gay men playing with giant Barbie dolls. Toronto academic Mitu Sengupta said the film exploited women's and gay rights and "pitifully" turned them into "badges of national honor" and "smug patriotic pride". She wrote: "What's really worrying about Sex and the City 2 is not its Orientalism or crass materialism, but how easily this seemingly benign bubble-gum flick ends up fighting a very macho war of global one-upmanship on the bodies of women and gay men.

According to Razzies founder John J. Wilson , "[Eigenberg] said that he had never won an award of any kind and if this was what he won, he would accept it. Sex and the City 2 opened in 3, theaters on May 27, , setting a record for one of the widest release for a R-rated romantic comedy film.

Internationally the sequel topped the charts in Germany for five weeks, Britain for three weeks, Australia for two weeks and exceeding the original in Japan and Greece. Sex and the City 2 sold more tickets than the first part in many other markets. Sex and the City 2 was released on DVD , Blu-ray , and iTunes on October 26, , in the US [43] where it entered the chart at number one selling almost one million copies in its first week.

The score was recorded and mixed by Dennis S. Patrick Kirst also orchestrated. In December , Radar Online reported that a script for the third film had been approved. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Theatrical release poster. Chris Stein Deborah Harry. Dido R. Armstrong Sister Bliss. Cee Lo Green Faheem Najm. Badu James Poyser. Atlas John Reynolds Justin Adams. Al Shux Keys. Salaam Remi Claude Kelly.

Helen Reddy Ray Burton. Frederick Loewe Alan Jay Lerner. Jerry Bock Sheldon Harnick. Richard Rodgers Lorenz Hart. Tom Kelly Billy Steinberg. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October 4, The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 11, British Board of Film Classification. May 13, Retrieved June 19, Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 27, The Numbers.

Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved July 4, April 27, E Online!. Archived from the original on August 8, Retrieved November 8, New York Post. Arabian Business.

Retrieved December 24, Archived from the original on September 6, Retrieved October 13, Becks joins Instagram Daily Mail.

Retrieved May 4, Entertainment Wise. December 1, Archived from the original on December 14, — via Tumblr.

Retrieved March 12, Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved April 18, Retrieved May 26,

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Eastern Time Zone. The season garnered a more positive reception from critics. The second season saw a rise in ratings from the previous season, averaging a total of nine million viewers. The show continued its award success in season two, zex various major award nominations for the main cast and the series, including a Golden Globe Award win for Parker. The series is based on the book of the same namewritten by Candace Bushnellwhich contains stories from her column with the New York Observer.

Season two featured four sexx receiving star billing. Sarah Jessica Parker played the lead character Carrie Bradshawa writer of a sex column, "Sex and the City"for fictional magazine and the narrator of the series.

The season featured a number of recurring guest appearances. Chris Noth appeared as the slick, elusive business man and Carrie's love interest known as Mr. The second season averaged a total viewership of 9 million viewers, up from last season's average of 6. Kelleher then deemed it "The Man Show's smarter flip side.

Carrie sex to "officially" date Mr. Big again. Miranda dates a guy who insists on watching porn while they have sex. Fed up with cheating men, Charlotte spends time with her new friends, the "Power Lesbians. A frustrated Carrie tries to get Big to make time to meet the girls. Miranda meets Steve Brady, a cute bartender who wants to be more than a one-night stand.

Samantha dates an incredibly wealthy man in his seventies with a sumptuous lifestyle and a pocket full of Viagra. Carrie sez a recovering alcoholic sex becomes obsessed with her. Charlotte is determined to learn how to have good sex after her latest partner falls asleep on her, and drags the girls to a Tantric sex class. Samantha gets an offer to have a threesome with sex curious gay friends.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sex and the City season 2 Promotional poster. See also: List of Sex and the City characters. See also: List of awards and nominations received by Sex and the City. Sex also: List of Sex and the City episodes. Home Box Office, Inc. Retrieved 31 July Big played by Chris Noth". The Nevada Daily Mail. Rust Communications. Retrieved 19 September The Register-Guard.

Eugene, Oregon. Guard Publishing Co. Retrieved 25 August People Weekly. Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Retrieved 2 May American Comedy Awards. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 15 April Retrieved 14 May Satellite Awards. International Press Academy. Archived from the original on January 6, Directors Guild of America. July 18, Deseret Dex. Deseret News Publishing Company.

Retrieved 29 May Retrieved 5 May Pioneer Presspg. Ssx effect of sexual programme content on the recall of sexual and non-sexual advertisements". Applied Cognitive Psychology. Retrieved March 3, Media Life. Archived from the original on March 4, Retrieved April 4, o Amazon UK. JB Hi-Fi. Archived from the original sex 3 August Retrieved May 30, Sex and the City by Candace Bushnell. Big" Preston Steve Brady Others.

Sex and the City soundtrack Sex and the City 2. Maiselseason 1 The Kominsky Methodseason 1 Categories : American television esx Sex and the City. Hidden categories: Webarchive template sdx links. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Promotional poster. List of Sex and the City episodes. Michael Patrick King. Carrie meets "the new Yankee ", Joe, at a baseball game, all the while preparing for her first post-breakup encounter with Big.

Miranda gets fed up with the girls always talking about men. Samantha gets frustrated with James's "deficiencies".

Charlotte dates a guy named Paul Ericson who has a tendency to adjust his package Carrie accidentally suggests that her friend Susan Sharon leave her domineering, violent husband. Miranda builds up the courage to talk dirty in bed. Charlotte tries to replace the perfect man with the perfect dog. Samantha gets dragged to couples' therapy with James and tries to avoid talking about her real problem with sex sex life. Carrie turns freakish herself after dating a string of freaky guys and freaks out the very normal Ben when trying to discover his secret freakiness.

Miranda dates "Manhattan Guy," a guy who hasn't left Manhattan in ten years. Charlotte dates sex renowned sex. Pussy" and tries to make a real relationship out of it. Samantha decides to get plastic surgery and freaks out during the consult.

John David Coles. Miranda fakes orgasms with her current boyfriend. Charlotte starts dating her handyman. Samantha dates a club owner, who calls them a "we" right away.

Carrie starts seeing Mr. Miranda buys her own apartment on the Upper West Side. Charlotte meets a recent widower at a cemetery. Samantha's actions with a married man gets her in trouble with the New York sex "ladies who lunch" and only a titanic star can help her out. Victoria Hochberg. Carrie gets fed up sec Big's inability to pay attention to her.

Miranda inadvertently sets her interior designer up with a long-distance would-be boyfriend, and they marry after only four weeks.

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Read chapter 2 Sexual Harassment Research: Over the last few decades, research, activity, and funding has been devoted to improving the recruitment, reten. Product Description. The fun, the fashion, the friendship: Sex and the City 2 brings it all back and more as Carrie (Sarah Jessica Parker), Samantha (Kim Cattrall).

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