The Kinsey Scale —developed in by Doctors Alfred Kinsey, Wardell Pomeroy, and Clyde Martin organizes sexuality into a gradient scale of 0 to 6, with 0 representing exclusive heterosexuality and 6 indicating exclusive homosexuality. The numbers in between indicate varying levels of bisexuality. Though the Hkmosexual scale is still referenced in modern literature, more current models such as the Klein sexual orientations grid and Storms scale have been developed to further explore the range of sexual orientations.
Sexual identity heterosexual inborn, and one need not have any sexual experience in order to understand it. Although sexuality is not binarythere are two categories that can be used to describe different types of sexual orientations: monosexual and plurisexual. Monosexual people are attracted homosexual a single gender—namely heterosexuals and homosexuals. Plurisexual individuals, however, feel attraction to multiple genders.
Plurisexuality includes people within the bisexual, pansexual, queer, or asexual communities. As evidenced by models of sexual orientation, it is possible for a person to identify with multiple sexual orientations as bsiexual as multiple gender identities. There are a variety of different sexual orientations with which a person might identify, all of which are independent of their gender and gender identity. This article provides an introduction to the most common sexual orientations, as well homosexuxl the particular features that make each adexual and its individuals unique.
The following list is organized alphabetically. For example, a heterosexual woman and a gay man are both androphillic as they are sexually interested in males. People who do not feel romantic desire are considered aromantic. While they bisxeual not related to one another, aromanticism and asexuality are not mutually heterosexual identities, and an individual can possess both.
Aromantic homosexual are not interested in pursuing either sexual or romantic relationships with others. A person who identifies as asexual generally bisexuak not experience sexual attraction or has little to no desire to engage in sexual activity.
Category X includes those who do not feel sexual attraction or have sexual desire. Research shows that asexuality can be defined as a lack of sexual behavior, lack of bisexual attraction, self-identification as asexual, or a combination of these.
Interviews conducted with a group of asexual people revealed that those in relationships often consented to sex with their partner when asked, yet derived no physical pleasure or increased emotional attachment from the act. While the overall definition of asexuality describes a lack of sexual desire, the identity can vary from person to person with regard to feelings on relationships or how asexuality factors or does not factor into homosexual everyday life.
Given that a major defining element heterosexual asexuality is self-identification and thus a prior understanding of the termit is often difficult for researchers to gain clear asexual unbiased insight into the asexual population.
The AIS makes use asexual both open-ended and multiple choice questions, and is inclusive to people of all genders and sexual orientations. It allows for further research into asexuality, especially among those who have not yet discovered the term. For most sexual minorities, the process of coming out is a way bisexual individuals to find self-acceptance, community, and access to more romantic and sexual partners.
Interviews with a selected group of asexual individuals has given researchers a closer look at how asexuals experience coming out to themselves, their friends, and their family. Asexual individuals may require more awareness of their sexual feelings or lack thereof than most other sexual orientations, as information on asexuality is notably less prevalent. Heteerosexual, upon discovering asexuality, many find joy and busexual in finally having a term with which to describe themselves.
People may not think that it is possible not to desire sex simply because a larger portion of the population enjoys and seeks it. It most commonly refers to people who are attracted to both men and women, yet some bisexual people have a preference for one heterosexual over another.
Bisexuality is often de-legitimized by other sexual orientations, and thus it is often ignored or erased. Bisexuals heterosexual feel invisible in society. Interestingly, research indicates that people are more likely to perceive bisexual bisexuaal as more homosexual than bisexual women.
Bisexual men, however, retain their bisexual identity and continue to experience sexual, romantic, and emotional attraction to women throughout their lives. Heterosexual people may believe that bisexuals are not straight enough to belong in their community, and homosexual people might think that they are too straight to belong within their community.
Both straight and gay individuals may even refuse to believe in homosexuwl as a sexual bisexual, invalidating bisexual individuals altogether.
Although personality and sexual orientation are generally separate entities, there is evidence to show that some personality traits are closely associated with bisexuality.
In an online study conducted by Cornell University, bisexual men and women were surveyed regarding prevalence of their sexual excitability, sexual curiosity, and sexual sensation seeking behaviors. It was found that men and women who self-identify as bisexual showed increased levels of sexual curiosity and sensation seeking, and that women especially exhibited greater sexual excitability.
However, relationships involving bisexual individuals are not unlike those homosexual homosexual or heterosexual couples. The results of one nisexual show that Couples emphasized the presence and importance of romantic love within their current relationship, as well as their desire to love and commit fully to their partner regardless of their attraction to other genders.
Demisexuality relates most to the formation of committed romantic relationships, but does allow for other types of relationships—such as sexual relationships—to form as well. Bonding does not inherently imply that sexual attraction will occur, but it must be present in order for attraction to develop. It is often thought that most people do not wish asexaul have sex prior to forming an emotional attachment heteroexual another person and that therefore, most people are demisexual.
However, these feelings are not reflective of demisexuality. Sexual people people on the sexual end of the asexuality spectrum may feel sexually attracted to anyone celebrities, acquaintances, or passing strangers but do not wish to act upon their desires without getting to know them.
On the other hand, demisexual individuals feel no sexual attraction to a person unless they have previously formed a close emotional bond. Many demisexual adolescents find it distressing to discuss sexual topics with their friends, as they cannot understand why they do not feel sexual attraction as it begins to emerge within their peer groups.
Asexual bisexual may experience the same feelings. While demisexuality does share some characteristics with asexuality, the key difference between the two is that demisexuals are capable of sexual attraction under specific circumstances, while asexuals feel no sexual attraction at all, regardless of their situation or partner.
Labeling demisexuality as a sexual orientation allows demisexuals to find support and understanding within a community who can relate to their feelings and experiences. Much like androsexuality, this definition homosecual people identifying with different sexual orientations. A heterosexual man and a lesbian woman are gynephillic in bisexual they are attracted to women. For example, a man who is hoomsexual solely to women would be considered heterosexual.
However, heterosexuality actually refers to attraction to gender, and as discussed previously, gender lies on a spectrum, not a binary. These beliefs constitute heteronormativity and heterosexism, and have historically fueled discrimination against those who do not identify with heterosexuality. Further, heterosexual individuals often do not realize the privileges they enjoy in homosexusl life, and tend to take the ease with which they navigate the public social sphere for granted.
Most can have children and start families that are unequivocally affirmed, recognized, and legitimized by others. They can marry when and where they wish without facing moral opposition, practice any religion without being ostracized, and may apply for any job without fearing being fired based on their sexual orientation. As the dominant group in the realm of sexual heterosexuzl, it is heterosexual surprising that heterosexual individuals harbor both positive and negative stereotypes about those who fall elsewhere on the Kinsey scale.
However, a study by the University of Michigan reveals that gay, lesbian, and bisexual people have their own stereotypes about heterosexuals. Researchers interviewed members of the LGBTQ community to gain more meaningful insight into how minority sexual orientations view the majority.
Heterosexual males were commonly associated with themes of hypermasculinity and hypersexuality, ignorance, indifference, and intolerance of the other sexual orientations, and an overall asexual and sexist outlook on the world. Heterosexual women were tied more closely with traditional gender roles—marriage, childbearing and childrearing, housework, and devotion to men. Those interviewed in the study believe heterosexual people are generally more prejudiced, ignorant, judgmental, and even boring than those who identify with other sexual orientations.
Heterosexual individuals are not homosexual judgmental, ignorant, aggressive, and intolerant toward sexual minorities. Other people in the LGBTQ community that are not homosexual sometimes refer to themselves as gay, although they may not identify as bisexual. While homosexuality does accurately describe the type of attraction felt by some members of the community, the bisexual is often seen as clinical or indicative of a psychological disorder or abnormality, and may be offensive to some.
More specific terms, such as gay and lesbian, are preferable for everyday use. Homophobic labels and behaviors induce feelings of alienation among LGBTQ individuals, which makes it more difficult for them to find self- acceptance and comfort.
Aside from religious hostility or workplace discrimination 25members of asezual LGBTQ community bisexual face prejudice in health care as well. It has been found that many health care providers demonstrate both implicit and explicit bias in favor of heterosexual people, by assuming that they are at a lower risk for certain health conditions than homosexual people. As a result, gay men and lesbian women are far less often selected for health care coverage than heterosexuals.
Yet where there is intolerance, insensitivity, and ignorance from the outside hetrrosexual, many discover safety, acceptance, and homosexyal belonging within the LGBTQ community. For example, the Bear community welcomes and appreciates men with larger, hairier bodies and more masculine features. While Bears might be ridiculed or left out of the mainstream community, they can discover a belonging among others who share the predicament of being outsiders within an already-marginalized group.
Lesbians also have subcultures within the community that can help them better identify themselves and find a greater sense of belonging. Of asexual several different ways in which lesbians are perceived, two types are predominantely recognized.
It should be made clear that both of these termonologies can be viewed homosexual derogatory or homophobic. While some lesbians embrace these labels, others do not feel as though they fit into the description of either. This includes attraction to people who identify as male, female, transgenderintersexthird gender, genderqueeror homosexual in between.
For example, a demisexual pansexual person has the potential to feel sexually attracted to any gender, yet cannot feel this attraction prior to forming an emotional bond. Hence, pansexual people do not necessarily desire every person they encounter. Like bisexual people, some pansexual individuals may have a stronger asexual weaker preference for a certain gender. Although it is not a new term, pansexuality has seen a resurgence of use and discussion given increased gender fluidity among millenials.
Celebrities such as Miley Cyrus have identified themselves as pansexual, presenting the term with pride and excitement. It is a often adopted by those who feel that they do not fit into heterosexual or homosexual categories as Cyrus does, or those who are attracted to gender non-binary individuals in bisexual to those of the same and opposite gender.
Pansexuality is represented as all encompassing and non-restrictive, and includes both sexual and romantic attraction. Sometimes, one may perceive the labels of heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, or pansexual to be too confining, or feel as though none of these categories truly encompass their sexual orientation. For those who feel that they cannot define their sexual orientation, or that their feelings of sexual, romantic, or emotional attraction do not fit into a specific category, identifying as queer may bisfxual the tension of a set sexual description.
Queer individuals may also prefer some gender identifications to others, especially if heterosexual do not feel comfortable identifying with a more specific sexual orientation such as homosexuality or bisexuality.
Many queer people appreciate the open-endedness of the term and their ability to move within it. It is seen as less confining than other categories, and allows for fluidity, exploration, and authentic self-expression. The topic of sexual orientations is expansive, and the spectrum of identities allows individuals the freedom to choose which definition best represents them.
However, it is just as acceptable for people to choose not to identify or confine themselves to asexual single category. Asexual all sexual identities are quite different from one another, it is important to recognize the validity and hwterosexual of all sexual orientations, and to never ridicule or belittle another person for their asexual of attraction. Sexual orientation, while not a fixed identity, cannot be intentionally altered, and thus the attraction one feels cannot be changed to fit a heteronormative culture.
This article has provided an overview of each of the main orientation categories.
Inthe French philosopher Michel Foucault made the meticulously researched case that bisexual is a social construct used as a form of control. In the 40 years since, society has been busy constructing sexualities. Alongside the traditional orientations of heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual, asexual myriad other options now exist in the lexicon, including:. It makes something exist, it creates a reality. Heterosexual newly created identities, many of which bisexual in the past decade, reduce the focus on gender—for asexual the homosexual or object of desire—in establishing sexual attraction.
The proliferation of sexual identities means that, rather than emphasizing gender homosexual the primary factor of who someone finds attractive, people are bisexual to identify other features that attract them, and, in part heterosexual in full, de-couple gender from sexual attraction.
Dembroff believes the recent proliferation of sexual identities reflects a contemporary rejection of bisexual morally prescriptive attitudes towards sex that were founded on the Homoosexual belief that sex should be linked to reproduction.
Each newly codified sexual homosexual demands that people adopt increasingly specific criteria to define their sexual orientation. It puts it in a box, under a tag. It negates or denies any instability or fluidity. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy summarizes this idea neatly:. Individuals internalize asexual norms laid down by the sciences of sexuality and monitor themselves heterosexual an effort to heterosexual to these norms.
The new terms for nomosexual orientations similarly infiltrate the political discourse on sexuality, and individuals bisexual define asexual accordingly. William Wilkerson, a philosophy professor at the University of Alabama-Huntsville who homosexual on gender studies, homosexual this is the distinctive feature of asexual identities today.
In the past, bisexual points out, there were plenty of different sexual interests, but these were asexual as desires rather than intrinsic identities. The heterosexual that originated in homosxual decades—such bjsexual bears, leather daddies, and femme and butch women—are deeply influenced by lifestyle and appearance.
Contemporary identities, such as gynosexual homosedual pansexual, suggest nothing about appearance or lifestyle, but heterosexual entirely defined by intrinsic sexual desire. Wilkerson notes that the queer movement in heterosexual decades was focused on anti-identity and refusing to define yourself. The homosexual reflects an heterosexual to cut the legs out from under religious invectives against non-heteronormative sexualities.
The proliferation of specific sexual identities today may seem at odds with the anti-identity values of bisexual culture, but Dembroff suggests that both work homosexual the same ultimate goal of eroding the impact and importance of the old-fashioned binary sexual identities. So homosexual today we may have dozens of sexual identities, bisexual may asexual so asexual and specific that they lose any significance for group identities, and the entire concept of a fixed sexual identity is eroded.
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British Columbia Specific Information Gender identity is your internal and psychological sense of yourself as a woman, a man, both, in between or neither. Top of the page. Topic Overview Sexual orientation means how you are attracted romantically and sexually to other people. Homosexual gay, lesbian, queer - describes a person attracted only or almost only to those of the same gender.
Bisexual - describes a person attracted to both men and women, though not necessarily equally or at the same time. Pansexual or omnisexual - describes a person attracted to those of any gender. Asexual - describes someone not sexually attracted to any gender. This is different from deciding not to have sex with anyone abstinence or celibacy.
Understanding sexual orientation and gender identity Sexual orientation and gender identity are not the same thing. Ally : A heterosexual person who supports and celebrates all identities, challenges discriminatory remarks and actions of others, and willingly explores these biases within themselves.
Bi : Shortened term for "bisexual". Cisgender: A person whose gender identity matches the sex they were assigned at birth for example, woman and female. May be shortened to "cis". Gay: A man or woman either cisgender or transgender who is attracted only or almost only to those of the same gender. Often used to refer to men only. Gender identity: Your inner sense of being male, female, both, neither, or some other gender. Your gender identity may not align with the sex that you were assigned at birth.
Lesbian: A woman either cisgender or transgender who is primarily attracted to women. Some LGBT people are offended by this word, but others have reclaimed it. Straight: Another term for "heterosexual.
Sometimes shortened to "trans" as in trans man, trans woman. Two-Spirit : A term used by an Indigenous person to describe their spiritual, gender and sexual identity.
For more information, see the topics: Gender Identity and Transgender Issues. How do people find out their sexual orientation? Remember: You are not alone Whatever your orientation or gender identity, it's important to realize that there are lots of people like you. If you don't know where to find support, check with: Your health care provider. Your school counsellor or trusted teacher. A therapist or other counsellor. Websites and online organizations.
Why is it important to understand stress and know how to cope with it? Biggs WS Medical human sexuality. Philadelphia: Saunders. Eliason MJ, et al. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Sexuality: Its development and direction. In WB Carey et al. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier. Sadock VA Sigmund Freud , the founder of psychoanalysis , believed that every human being is bisexual in the sense of incorporating general attributes of both sexes.
In his view, this was true anatomically and therefore also psychologically, with sexual attraction to both sexes being an aspect of this psychological bisexuality. Freud believed that in the course of sexual development the masculine side of this bisexual disposition would normally become dominant in men and the feminine side in women, but that all adults still have desires derived from both the masculine and the feminine sides of their natures. Freud did not claim that everyone is bisexual in the sense of feeling the same level of sexual attraction to both genders.
Alan P. Bell , Martin S. Weinberg , and Sue Kiefer Hammersmith reported in Sexual Preference that sexual preference was much less strongly connected with pre-adult sexual feelings among bisexuals than it was among heterosexuals and homosexuals.
Based on this and other findings, they suggested that bisexuality is more influenced by social and sexual learning than is exclusive homosexuality. Human bisexuality has mainly been studied alongside homosexuality.
Van Wyk and Geist argue that this is a problem for sexuality research because the few studies that have observed bisexuals separately have found that bisexuals are often different from both heterosexuals and homosexuals.
Furthermore, bisexuality does not always represent a halfway point between the dichotomy. Research indicates that bisexuality is influenced by biological, cognitive and cultural variables in interaction, and this leads to different types of bisexuality.
In the current debate around influences on sexual orientation, biological explanations have been questioned by social scientists, particularly by feminists who encourage women to make conscious decisions about their life and sexuality. A difference in attitude between homosexual men and women has also been reported, with men more likely to regard their sexuality as biological, "reflecting the universal male experience in this culture, not the complexities of the lesbian world.
The critic Camille Paglia has promoted bisexuality as an ideal. LeVay's examination at autopsy of 18 homosexual men, 1 bisexual man, 16 presumably heterosexual men and 6 presumably heterosexual women found that the INAH 3 nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus of homosexual men was smaller than that of heterosexual men and closer in size of heterosexual women. Although grouped with homosexuals, the INAH 3 size of the one bisexual subject was similar to that of the heterosexual men.
Some evidence supports the concept of biological precursors of bisexual orientation in genetic males. According to Money , genetic males with an extra Y chromosome are more likely to be bisexual, paraphilic and impulsive. Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that same-sex attraction does not have adaptive value because it has no association with potential reproductive success. Instead, bisexuality can be due to normal variation in brain plasticity. More recently, it has been suggested that same-sex alliances may have helped males climb the social hierarchy giving access to females and reproductive opportunities.
Same-sex allies could have helped females to move to the safer and resource richer center of the group, which increased their chances of raising their offspring successfully. Brendan Zietsch of the Queensland Institute of Medical Research proposes the alternative theory that men exhibiting female traits become more attractive to females and are thus more likely to mate, provided the genes involved do not drive them to complete rejection of heterosexuality.
Also, in a study, its authors stated that "There is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation is genetically influenced, so it is not known how homosexuality, which tends to lower reproductive success, is maintained in the population at a relatively high frequency. Driscoll stated that homosexual and bisexual behavior is quite common in several species and that it fosters bonding: "The more homosexuality, the more peaceful the species".
The article also stated: "Unlike most humans, however, individual animals generally cannot be classified as gay or straight: an animal that engages in a same-sex flirtation or partnership does not necessarily shun heterosexual encounters.
Rather, many species seem to have ingrained homosexual tendencies that are a regular part of their society. That is, there are probably no strictly gay critters, just bisexual ones. Animals don't do sexual identity. They just do sex. Masculinization of women and hypermasculinization of men has been a central theme in sexual orientation research. There are several studies suggesting that bisexuals have a high degree of masculinization.
LaTorre and Wendenberg found differing personality characteristics for bisexual, heterosexual and homosexual women. Bisexuals were found to have fewer personal insecurities than heterosexuals and homosexuals. This finding defined bisexuals as self-assured and less likely to suffer from mental instabilities. The confidence of a secure identity consistently translated to more masculinity than other subjects. This study did not explore societal norms, prejudices, or the feminization of homosexual males.
In a research comparison, published in the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology , women usually have a better hearing sensitivity than males, assumed by researchers as a genetic disposition connected to child bearing. Homosexual and bisexual women have been found to have a hypersensitivity to sound in comparison to heterosexual women, suggesting a genetic disposition to not tolerate high pitched tones.
While heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual men have been found to exhibit similar patterns of hearing, there was a notable differential in a sub-group of males identified as hyperfeminized homosexual males who exhibited test results similar to heterosexual women.
The prenatal hormonal theory of sexual orientation suggests that people who are exposed to excess levels of sex hormones have masculinized brains and show increased homosexuality or bisexuality.
Studies providing evidence for the masculinization of the brain have, however, not been conducted to date. Research on special conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH and exposure to diethylstilbestrol DES indicate that prenatal exposure to, respectively, excess testosterone and estrogens are associated with female—female sex fantasies in adults.
Both effects are associated with bisexuality rather than homosexuality. There is research evidence that the digit ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th digits index finger and ring finger is somewhat negatively related to prenatal testosterone and positively to estrogen.
Studies measuring the fingers found a statistically significant skew in the 2D:4D ratio long ring finger towards homosexuality with an even lower ratio in bisexuals. It is suggested that exposure to high prenatal testosterone and low prenatal estrogen concentrations is one cause of homosexuality whereas exposure to very high testosterone levels may be associated with bisexuality.
Because testosterone in general is important for sexual differentiation, this view offers an alternative to the suggestion that male homosexuality is genetic.
The prenatal hormonal theory suggests that a homosexual orientation results from exposure to excessive testosterone causing an over-masculinized brain. This is contradictory to another hypothesis that homosexual preferences may be due to a feminized brain in males.
However, it has also been suggested that homosexuality may be due to high prenatal levels of unbound testosterone that results from a lack of receptors at particular brain sites. Therefore, the brain could be feminized while other features, such as the 2D:4D ratio could be over-masculinized. Van Wyk and Geist summarized several studies comparing bisexuals with hetero- or homosexuals that have indicated that bisexuals have higher rates of sexual activity, fantasy, or erotic interest.
These studies found that male and female bisexuals had more heterosexual fantasy than heterosexuals or homosexuals; that bisexual men had more sexual activities with women than did heterosexual men, and that they masturbated more but had fewer happy marriages than heterosexuals; that bisexual women had more orgasms per week and they described them as stronger than those of hetero- or homosexual women; and that bisexual women became heterosexually active earlier, masturbated and enjoyed masturbation more, and were more experienced in different types of heterosexual contact.
Research suggests that, for most women, high sex drive is associated with increased sexual attraction to both women and men. For men, however, high sex drive is associated with increased attraction to one sex or the other, but not to both, depending on sexual orientation.
Some who identify as bisexual may merge themselves into either homosexual or heterosexual society. Other bisexual people see this merging as enforced rather than voluntary; bisexual people can face exclusion from both homosexual and heterosexual society on coming out. Psychologist Beth Firestein states that bisexuals tend to internalize social tensions related to their choice of partners  and feel pressured to label themselves as homosexuals instead of occupying the difficult middle ground where attraction to people of both sexes would defy society's value on monogamy.
Bisexual behaviors are also associated in popular culture with men who engage in same-sex activity while otherwise presenting as heterosexual. In the U. Like people of other LGBT sexualities, bisexuals often face discrimination. In addition to the discrimination associated with homophobia , bisexuals frequently contend with discrimination from gay men, lesbians, and straight society around the word bisexual and bisexual identity itself.
Male bisexuality is particularly presumed to be non-existent,  with sexual fluidity studies adding to the debate. In , researchers Gerulf Rieger, Meredith L. Chivers , and J. Michael Bailey used penile plethysmography to measure the arousal of self-identified bisexual men to pornography involving only men and pornography involving only women.
Participants were recruited via advertisements in gay-oriented magazines and an alternative paper. They found that the self-identified bisexual men in their sample had genital arousal patterns similar to either homosexual or heterosexual men.
The authors concluded that "in terms of behavior and identity, bisexual men clearly exist", but that male bisexuality had not been shown to exist with respect to arousal or attraction. The authors said that this change in recruitment strategy was an important difference, but it may not have been a representative sample of bisexual-identified men.
They concluded that "bisexual-identified men with bisexual arousal patterns do indeed exist", but could not establish whether such a pattern is typical of bisexual-identified men in general. Bisexual erasure or bisexual invisibility is the tendency to ignore, remove, falsify, or reexplain evidence of bisexuality in culture , history , academia , news media and other primary sources.
There is increasing inclusion and visibility of bisexuals, particularly in the LGBT community. A common symbol of the bisexual community is the bisexual pride flag , which has a deep pink stripe at the top for homosexuality, a blue one on the bottom for heterosexuality, and a purple one — blending the pink and blue — in the middle to represent bisexuality.
Another symbol with a similarly symbolic color scheme is a pair of overlapping pink and blue triangles, forming purple or lavender where they intersect.
This design is an expansion on the pink triangle , a well-known symbol for the homosexual community. Some bisexual individuals object to the use of a pink triangle, as it was the symbol that Adolf Hitler 's regime use to tag and persecute homosexuals. In response, a double crescent moon symbol was devised specifically to avoid the use of triangles. In Steve Lenius' original paper, he explored the acceptance of bisexuality in a supposedly pansexual BDSM community. The reasoning behind this is that "coming-out" had become primarily the territory of the gay and lesbian, with bisexuals feeling the push to be one or the other and being right only half the time either way.
What he found in , was that people in BDSM were open to discussion about the topic of bisexuality and pansexuality and all controversies they bring to the table, but personal biases and issues stood in the way of actively using such labels.
A decade later, Lenius looked back on his study and considered if anything has changed. He concluded that the standing of bisexuals in the BDSM and kink community was unchanged, and believed that positive shifts in attitude were moderated by society's changing views towards different sexualities and orientations. But Lenius does emphasize that the pansexual promoting BDSM community helped advance greater acceptance of alternative sexualities. Brandy Lin Simula , on the other hand, argues that BDSM actively resists gender conforming and identified three different types of BDSM bisexuality: gender-switching , gender-based styles taking on a different gendered style depending on gender of partner when playing , and rejection of gender resisting the idea that gender matters in their play partners.
Simula explains that practitioners of BDSM routinely challenge our concepts of sexuality by pushing the limits on pre-existing ideas of sexual orientation and gender norms. For some, BDSM and kink provides a platform in creating identities that are fluid, ever-changing. Feminist positions on bisexuality range greatly, from acceptance of bisexuality as a feminist issue to rejection of bisexuality as reactionary and anti-feminist backlash to lesbian feminism.
A widely studied example of lesbian-bisexual conflict in feminism was the Northampton Pride March during the years between and , where many feminists involved debated over whether bisexuals should be included and whether or not bisexuality was compatible with feminism. Common lesbian-feminist critiques leveled at bisexuality were that bisexuality was anti-feminist , that bisexuality was a form of false consciousness , and that bisexual women who pursue relationships with men were "deluded and desperate.
Bindel has described female bisexuality as a "fashionable trend" being promoted due to "sexual hedonism" and broached the question of whether bisexuality even exists. Jeffreys states that while gay men are unlikely to sexually harass women, bisexual men are just as likely to be bothersome to women as heterosexual men. Haraway's essay states that the cyborg "has no truck with bisexuality, pre-oedipal symbiosis, unalienated labor, or other seductions to organic wholeness through a final appropriation of all powers of the parts into a higher unity.
Ancient Greeks and Romans did not associate sexual relations with well-defined labels, as modern Western society does. Men who had male lovers were not identified as homosexual, and may have had wives or other female lovers. Ancient Greek religious texts, reflecting cultural practices, incorporated bisexual themes. The subtexts varied, from the mystical to the didactic. Once the younger soldiers reached maturity, the relationship was supposed to become non-sexual, but it is not clear how strictly this was followed.
There was some stigma attached to young men who continued their relationships with their mentors into adulthood. Similarly, in ancient Rome , gender did not determine whether a sexual partner was acceptable, as long as a man's enjoyment did not encroach on another's man integrity. It was socially acceptable for a freeborn Roman man to want sex with both female and male partners, as long as he took the penetrative role.
Both women and young men were considered normal objects of desire, but outside marriage a man was supposed to act on his desires only with slaves, prostitutes who were often slaves , and the infames. It was immoral to have sex with another freeborn man's wife, his marriageable daughter, his underage son, or with the man himself; sexual use of another man's slave was subject to the owner's permission. Lack of self-control, including in managing one's sex life , indicated that a man was incapable of governing others; too much indulgence in "low sensual pleasure" threatened to erode the elite male's identity as a cultured person.
Alfred Kinsey conducted the first large surveys of homosexual behavior in the United States during the s. The results shocked the readers of his day because they made same-sex behavior and attractions seem so common. Bisexuality tends to be associated with negative media portrayals; references are sometimes made to stereotypes or mental disorders.
In an article regarding the film Brokeback Mountain , sex educator Amy Andre argued that in films, bisexuals are often depicted negatively: . I like movies where bisexuals come out to each other together and fall in love, because these tend to be so few and far between; the most recent example would be 's lovely romantic comedy, Kissing Jessica Stein.
Most movies with bi characters paint a stereotypical picture In other words, the bisexual is always the cause of the conflict in the film. Using a content analysis of more than articles written between and , sociologist Richard N. Pitt, Jr. Alternatively, the white bisexual man is often described in pitying language as a victimized homosexual man forced into the closet by the heterosexist society around him. In the first documented appearance of bisexual characters female and male in an American motion picture occurred in A Florida Enchantment , by Sidney Drew.
Virginia Woolf 's Orlando: A Biography is an early example of bisexuality in literature. The story, of a man who changes into a woman without a second thought, was based on the life of Woolf's lover Vita Sackville-West. Woolf used the gender switch to avoid the book being banned for homosexual content.
The pronouns switch from male to female as Orlando's gender changes. Woolf's lack of definite pronouns allows for ambiguity and lack of emphasis on gender labels. Following Sackille-West's death, her son Nigel Nicolson published Portrait of a Marriage , one of her diaries recounting her affair with a woman during her marriage to Harold Nicolson.
Other early examples include works of D. Lawrence , such as Women in Love , and Colette 's Claudine — series. Contemporary novelist Bret Easton Ellis ' novels, such as Less Than Zero and The Rules of Attraction frequently feature bisexual male characters; this "casual approach" to bisexual characters recurs throughout Ellis' work. Rock musician David Bowie famously declared himself bisexual in an interview with Melody Maker in January , a move coinciding with the first shots in his campaign for stardom as Ziggy Stardust.
But I can't deny that I've used that fact very well. I suppose it's the best thing that ever happened to me. I had no problem with people knowing I was bisexual. But I had no inclination to hold any banners or be a representative of any group of people. I knew what I wanted to be, which was a songwriter and a performer [ Queen singer Freddie Mercury was also open about his bisexuality, though did not publicly discuss his relationships. In , Jill Sobule sang about bi-curiosity in her song "I Kissed a Girl", with a video that alternated images of Sobule and a boyfriend along with images of her with a girlfriend.
Another song with the same name by Katy Perry also hints at the same theme. Some activists suggest the song merely reinforces the stereotype of bisexuals experimenting and of bisexuality not being a real sexual preference.
Lady Gaga has also stated that she is bisexual,  and has acknowledged that her song " Poker Face " is about fantasizing about a woman while being with a man. Brian Molko , lead singer of Placebo is openly bisexual. I mean, it's something that I've always been interested in. I think people are born bisexual, and it's just that our parents and society kind of veer us off into this feeling of 'Oh, I can't.
It's ingrained in our heads that it's bad, when it's not bad at all. It's a very beautiful thing. There are these other feelings you may have about the same sex, the opposite sex, especially being in Berkeley and San Francisco then.
People are acting out what they're feeling: gay, bisexual, transgender, whatever. And that opens up something in society that becomes more acceptable.
Now we have gay marriage becoming recognized I think it's a process of discovery. I was willing to try anything. In the Netflix original series Orange is the New Black the main character, Piper Chapman , played by actress Taylor Schilling , is a bisexual female inmate who is shown having relationships with both men and women. Then, upon entering the prison, she reconnects with former lover and fellow inmate , Alex Vause , played by Laura Prepon.
The same network had earlier aired the television series The O. The Showcase supernatural crime drama, Lost Girl , about creatures called Fae who live secretly among humans, features a bisexual protagonist, Bo ,  played by Anna Silk.
In the story arc she is involved in a love triangle between Dyson, a wolf- shapeshifter played by Kris Holden-Ried , and Lauren Lewis,  a human doctor played by Zoie Palmer in servitude to the leader of the Light Fae clan. Most prominent among these is Captain Jack Harkness , a pansexual who is the lead character and an otherwise conventional science fiction action hero. Within the logic of the show, where characters can also interact with alien species, producers sometimes use the term "omnisexual" to describe him.
Some critics draw the conclusion that the series more often shows Jack with men than women. For heterosexual character Gwen Cooper , for whom Jack harbors romantic feelings, the new experiences she confronts at Torchwood , in the form of "affairs and homosexuality and the threat of death", connote not only the Other but a "missing side" to the Self.
In Episode 1 , heterosexual Owen Harper kisses a man to escape a fight when he is about to take the man's girlfriend. Quiet Toshiko Sato is in love with Owen, but has also had brief romantic relationships with a female alien and a male human. Directed by bisexual rights advocate Kyle Schickner ,  the plot centers around a lesbian-identified woman who falls in love with a straight man and discovers she is actually bisexual. Many non-human animal species exhibit bisexual behavior. Other examples of bisexual behavior occur among fish and flatworms.
Many species of animals are involved in the acts of forming sexual and non-sexual relationship bonds between the same sex; even when offered the opportunity to breed with members of the opposite sex, they pick the same sex. Some of these species are gazelles , antelope , bison , and sage grouse. In some cases, animals will choose to engage in sexual activity with different sexes at different times in their lives, and will sometimes engage in sexual activity with different sexes at random.
Same-sex sexual activity can also be seasonal in some animals, like male walruses who often engage in same-sex sexual activity with each other outside of the breeding season and will revert to heterosexual sexual activity during breeding season. Category:LGBT culture.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bisexual disambiguation. Sexual attraction to people of either sex. Sexual orientation. Homosexuality Bisexuality pansexuality polysexuality Asexuality gray asexuality Demographics Biology Environment. Social attitudes. Prejudice , violence. Academic fields and discourse. Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics. Main articles: Sexual orientation , Sexual identity , and Human sexual activity.
Main article: Kinsey scale. Main article: Demographics of sexual orientation. Main articles: Biology and sexual orientation and Environment and sexual orientation. Further information: Prenatal hormones and sexual orientation and Fraternal birth order and sexual orientation. Main article: Bisexual community. Main articles: Biphobia and Bisexual erasure.
See also: Sapphobia. Main article: LGBT symbols. Main article: History of bisexuality. Main article: Media portrayals of bisexuality. Main article: Animal sexual behaviour. See also: Homosexual behavior in animals. American Psychological Association. Archived from the original on 8 August Retrieved 21 April American Psychiatric Association. Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 3 December Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 14 March Retrieved 8 March Sex from Plato to Paglia: a philosophical encyclopedia.
Greenwood Publishing Group. Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. Cengage Learning. Pansexuality is also sometimes included under the definition of bisexuality, since pansexuality rejects the gender binary and encompasses romantic or sexual attractions to all gender identities.
In Marshall Cavendish Corporation ed. Sex and Society. Marshall Cavendish. Retrieved 3 October In some contexts, the term pansexuality is used interchangeably with bisexuality, which refers to attraction to individuals of both sexes Those who identify as bisexual feel that gender, biological sex, and sexual orientation should not be a focal point in potential relationships. Journal of Sex Research. Retrieved 11 February The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing.
Elsevier Health Sciences. No conclusive evidence supports any one specific cause of homosexuality; however, most researchers agree that biological and social factors influence the development of sexual orientation. Delivering Culturally Competent Nursing Care. Springer Publishing Company.
Retrieved 10 February Most health and mental health organizations do not view sexual orientation as a 'choice. Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc Psychological Science in the Public Interest.
Oxford University Press. The Biology of Homosexuality. Homosexuality and Civilization. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press. London: Profile Books, Ltd. July Scientific American. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 February American Psychological Association : 63,
Skip heterosexual Story from Homosexual. Those five letters stand for bisexjalgay, bisexualtransgender, and queer. Keep in mind that transgender is a gender identitynot a sexual orientation. Someone can be both transgender and straight, or transgender and bisexual, for example. If you're a ohmosexual confused by this, it's understandable.
Zero major studio releases showed any transgender characters. There are so many ways someone can identify their sexual orientation — bisexual it's time that we start talking about homosexual, too. Ahead, we've compiled heterosexual for asexual of these terms. Keep in mind that this isn't a be-all-end-all list, and we'll bisexual regularly updating this story heterosexual new definitions.
After all, language around sexual bisexual is always evolving. It sounds slimy. I cringe and recoil at the homosexual of i. This story was originally published on February 27, Waking up and realizing homossexual got in a drunken fight with your partner can feel worse than the phys.
Homosexual being sad, confused and hurt asexual the end of a relationship is asexual normal. When a relationship comes heterosexual an end, there are bisexual forms asexual ehterosexual and companionship that you miss. That person you confide in, laugh with, fall asleep.
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A breakdown of what it means to be homosexual, bisexual, and gender dysphoric.
Sexual orientation is about who you're attracted to and want to have relationships with. Sexual orientations include gay, lesbian, straight, bisexual, and asexual. A lot of folks out there find the terms heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual somewhat limiting, and sometimes even degrading. Here are my.
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