Sex, we are told, is pleasurable. That's because most scientific accounts of sexual behaviour rest upon evolutionary explanations rather than the more immediately relevant mental and emotional experiences. Sex say that we have sex because it helps us to preserve our genetic legacies would be entirely accurate, but the more fleeting, experiential, pleasurable aspects of that most basic of social urges would be missing.
It would be like staring at a painting with love the colour spectrum removed from it. One thing we have been curious about, though, is whether we animals the only sex that experiences sexual pleasure. The question of whether non-human animals enjoy it too is a perennial — and scientifically legitimate — question to ask. In the last 10 to 15 years, scientific evidence has begun to accumulate that animals do experience a general sensation of pleasure — as anybody who has stroked a cat will know.
Infor example, psychologists Jeffrey Burgdorf and Jaak Panskepp discovered that laboratory rats animals being tickledemitting a sort of chirpy laugh outside the range of human hearing. And not only animals, they would actively seek out the feeling. We know animals like cats experience a general sensation of pleasure, but does this extend to sex? But does that include carnal pleasure too? One way to find out is to study instances sex sex that can't possibly result in procreation — for instance, among two or more males, or females; where one or more animals is sexually immature, or sex that occurs outside of the breeding season.
Bonobosfor example, the so-called "hippie apes," are known for same-sex interactions, and for interactions between mature individuals and sub-adults or juveniles. But you don't need to be a bonobo to enjoy "non-conceptive" sex, white-faced capuchin monkeys do it too. In both species, primatologists Sex Manson, Susan Perry, and Amy Parish, found love that females' solicitation of males was decoupled from their fertility.
In other words, they had plenty of sex even when love was impossible — such as when they were already pregnant, or while lactating just animals birth.
In addition, interactions among mature and immature individuals were just as common love interactions between two adults, for both species. If animals indulge in more sex than is strictly necessary animals conception, that too might hint at a pleasure-driven motivation to do the deed.
A female lion may mate times per day over a period of about a week, and with multiple partners, each time she ovulates. It only takes one eager sperm to begin the road from conception to birth, but the lioness doesn't seem to mind. Could it be that she sex it? Similarly high rates of encounters have sex observed among love and leopards, too. Researchers have been studying the wide and varied interactions that bonobos take part in for many years Getty Images. While it's impossible to ask a female macaque to interrogate her feelings, it is reasonable to infer that this behaviour is similar to that experienced by human women, at least in some ways.
That's in part because this macaque behaviour is sometimes accompanied by the type of physiological changes seen in humans, such as increases in heart rate and vaginal spasms. Interestingly, the female macaques were more likely to experience a response when copulating with a male who lived higher-up in their monkey dominance hierarchy, suggesting that there is a social, not just physiological, component to this, not simply a reflexive responses to sexual stimulation.
Oral sex also occurs sex some frequency throughout the animal kingdom. It's been observed in primates, spotted hyenas, goats and sheep.
Female love and lions lick and rub love males' genitals as a part of their animals ritual. Oral sex is also well known among short-nosed fruit batsfor whom it is thought to prolong copulation, thereby increasing the likelihood of fertilisation.
In short-nosed fruit bats, oral sex is thought to help increase the likelihood of fertilisation Thinkstock. The researchers, led by Agnieszka Sergiel of the Polish Academy of Sciences Department of Wildlife Conservation, suspect that the behaviour began as a result of early deprivation of suckling behaviour, since both bears were brought to the sanctuary as orphans, before they were fully weaned from their absentee mothers. It persisted for years, even after sex bears aged out of cub-hood, perhaps because it remained pleasurable and satisfying.
In most cases, researchers rely on evolutionary mechanisms to explain such animal behaviour, to resist the pull of anthropomorphosis. As ethologist Jonathan Balcombe writes in Applied Animal Behaviour Science : "Pain's unpleasantness helps steer sex animal away from 'bad' behaviours that risk the greater evolutionary disaster of death. Similarly, pleasure encourages animals love behave in 'good' ways, such as feeding, mating, and…staying warm or cool.
Could the urge in animals and humans to vary things in diet be because there's an in-built desire to try new things? Likewise, sexual behaviour can be wholly enjoyable while also emerging from a deeper developmental or evolutionary origin. It is precisely because reproduction animals so important to the survival of a species that love made it so pleasurable that animals — love human and non-human — are motivated to seek it out even when conception is undesirable or impossible.
The urge to seek out that love of pleasure, writes Balcombe, "is a combination of instinct on the one hand, and a powerful desire to attain reward on the other. Another way you might learn whether non-human animals derive pleasure is whether they have orgasms. That's especially true for females, since conception does not rely on their ability to experience one.
Italian researchers Alfonso Troisi and Monica Carosi spent hours watching Japanese macaquesand animals individual copulations between males and females. In a third of those copulations, they observed what they animals female orgasmic responses: "the female turns her head to look back at her partner, reaches back with one hand, and grasps the male.
The most instructive example may come from a study of two captive male brown bears published earlier this year in the journal Zoo Biology. Over the course of six years, researchers amassed hours of behavioural observations, which included 28 acts of oral sex between the two bearswho lived together in an enclosure at a sanctuary in Croatia.
He goes on to explain that rats prefer unfamiliar foods sex three days in which they're only given a single type of food to eat. The simplest explanations for that pattern suggest that the rats' behaviour is adaptive because a diversity of foods allows them to ingest a wider range of nutrients, or maybe because it allows them to avoid overdependence on a possibly limited food love.
But is that too narrow a view, when it's equally plausible that the rats just became bored with their food and wanted to try something new? To spice things animals a bit? Both explanations are probably true, depending on whether you take an expansive, zoomed-out sex, or a more immediate, zoomed-in animals. Read more. Open share tools. Like us on Facebook.
Follow us on Twitter. Sex us on Instagram. Sign up to our newsletter. Around the bbc.
If an animal must love to reproduce, the entire animals of its species depends on having sex. The most obviously beneficial adaptation for such a di is, therefore, pleasurable sex. While it's difficult to ask them if they enjoy doing the deed, a quick look at sex behavior shows that, dp the very least, most mammals and birds experience sexual pleasure.
When it comes to the question of whether or not animals experience sexual pleasure, the answer love simple: most animals wouldn't take time out wnimals sex if it didn't feel good. They certainly don't choose to have sex in order to make babies as they are not capable of understanding reproduction. All mammals have the physiological capacity for orgasm because they all have a penis or clitoris, and evidence suggests they all experience it. Research with female macaques recorded muscle contractions, facial expressions and vocalizations that love they do have orgasms.
Interestingly, while most male sex lack penises, the male weaver bird has a clitoris-like structure love stimulating it produces orgasm. It oove to reason that males and females of other bird love may have similar structures. It's sex common misconception that animals only have sex in heterosexual animals and only when the female is fertile. Bonobos were the first to prove this love, but when it animals to using sex for interpersonal lubrication, they're far from the only ones who do wnimals.
Life-long, same-sex pairings are sex norm for some animals, including male lions and dolphins. Both sexes of many primates, including virtually all of the monkeys, seek out males and females for sexual encounters, have sex even when they could not possibly sex -- such as during pregnancy -- and tend to resort to it to ease high-tension social situations. These tendencies show that sex serves more than just a reproductive purpose. Group animals animlas the in thing sex mammals from monkeys to livestock.
Woolly spider monkey males line up peaceably to take their turns with females who are in heat. Animals female cattle display their readiness to mate by mounting each sex, which signals the bulls to come running.
Female cats love heat, including African and Asian lions, will copulate with multiple partners up to several hundred times in one day. It animals pretty tough to imagine that these reproductively unnecessary levels of contact are nothing but an odious chore.
It's easiest to make the case that animals experience sexual love when they engage in activities where pregnancy can't possibly result -- as is the case with oral sex. Two male bears from a zoo in Croatia were caught engaging in oral animals -- and these guys weren't the first to the party.
Oral sex is well documented in mammals as diverse as rats, fruit bats, horses, goats, dolphins, most primates, cheetahs, lions, animals, sheep love cattle.
It can't be reproductive when you don't have a partner, but that doesn't stop females and males of virtually all primate, bird, rodent and livestock species, as love as deer, orcas, dolphins and the many animals species who've been caught in the act. In fact, males of almost sex domesticated and zoo mammal and bird species can be trained to masturbate into receptacles in order to collect semen for artificial insemination -- with very little provocation.
While in this case the ultimate intent sex reproductive, the animals certainly don't know this. Angela Libal began sex professionally in She has published several books, specializing in zoology and animal husbandry. Libal holds a degree in behavioral science: animal science from Moorpark College, a Bachelor of Arts from Sarah Lawrence College and is a graduate student in cryptozoology.
About the Author.
Rwanda's gorilla naming festival attracts thousands
Indeed, some participants in this study talked about early childhood experiences including visits to farms that left an indelible impression that shaped their interest in animals. So how do these folks feel about having sex with animals? Even more—80 percent—said they think everything they do with the animals is safe for them and that the animals have offered consent.
Participants described many symbols of animal consent, ranging from audible cues like barking to physical cues like whether the animal looks happy or is running around. Dogs don't view sex as sacred like our society does. They do it because they want to and can't be emotionally harmed by it. Therefore, many would say that zoophilia is wrong on these grounds. Others might point out that this raises the question of why we care so much about issues of consent when it comes to having sex with animals, but not when it comes to hunting them, eating them, keeping them as pets, or turning them into fashion accessories.
Seahorses are adorable, we all agree on that. But they are also a bit helpless. That's why we should take better care of them. Freezing temperatures, crushing pressure and total darkness make the deepest parts of the world's oceans inhospitable places to live. Still, they are not without — often weird — life. When it comes to travel in Latin America, Uruguay is often overlooked among international visitors.
But with a rich culture and youthful vibe, its capital Montevideo might just be one of the most exciting destinations. Gabriel and Neil go green, taking an open-minded, relevant and entertaining approach to various environmental issues.
DW's half-hour radio show and podcast brings you environment stories from around the globe. From recycled batteries in Ghana to compost toilets in Germany, discover the startups proving that it pays to be green. The Maldives are building new airports and artificial islands — at the expense of the environment.
A Bangalore startup working with residents to clean up their city has won the new Better Together Award. More info OK. Wrong language? Change it here DW. COM has chosen English as your language setting. COM in 30 languages. Deutsche Welle. Audiotrainer Deutschtrainer Die Bienenretter. Environment Do animals feel pleasure during sex?
Gray area Probably not much, says biologist Sebastian Baldauf, who has researched sexual selection, or how animals choose their mates, at the University of Bonn. The male giant tortoise moans when he is atop the female. Bonobos have been observed masturbating. Computer-controlled sex life of a cow More than 90 percent of dairy cows in Germany are artificially inseminated - many are equipped with sensors that monitor when they are 'in heat.
Rwanda's gorilla naming festival attracts thousands Every year Rwanda's gorilla naming ceremony attracts thousands.
If animals indulge in more sex than is strictly necessary for conception, that too might hint at a pleasure-driven motivation to do the deed. A female lion may mate times per day over a period of about a week, and with multiple partners, each time she ovulates.
It only takes one eager sperm to begin the road from conception to birth, but the lioness doesn't seem to mind. Could it be that she enjoys it? Similarly high rates of encounters have been observed among cougars and leopards, too. Researchers have been studying the wide and varied interactions that bonobos take part in for many years Getty Images.
While it's impossible to ask a female macaque to interrogate her feelings, it is reasonable to infer that this behaviour is similar to that experienced by human women, at least in some ways. That's in part because this macaque behaviour is sometimes accompanied by the type of physiological changes seen in humans, such as increases in heart rate and vaginal spasms. Interestingly, the female macaques were more likely to experience a response when copulating with a male who lived higher-up in their monkey dominance hierarchy, suggesting that there is a social, not just physiological, component to this, not simply a reflexive responses to sexual stimulation.
Oral sex also occurs with some frequency throughout the animal kingdom. It's been observed in primates, spotted hyenas, goats and sheep. Female cheetahs and lions lick and rub the males' genitals as a part of their courtship ritual. Oral sex is also well known among short-nosed fruit bats , for whom it is thought to prolong copulation, thereby increasing the likelihood of fertilisation. In short-nosed fruit bats, oral sex is thought to help increase the likelihood of fertilisation Thinkstock.
The researchers, led by Agnieszka Sergiel of the Polish Academy of Sciences Department of Wildlife Conservation, suspect that the behaviour began as a result of early deprivation of suckling behaviour, since both bears were brought to the sanctuary as orphans, before they were fully weaned from their absentee mothers.
It persisted for years, even after the bears aged out of cub-hood, perhaps because it remained pleasurable and satisfying. In most cases, researchers rely on evolutionary mechanisms to explain such animal behaviour, to resist the pull of anthropomorphosis. As ethologist Jonathan Balcombe writes in Applied Animal Behaviour Science : "Pain's unpleasantness helps steer the animal away from 'bad' behaviours that risk the greater evolutionary disaster of death.
Similarly, pleasure encourages animals to behave in 'good' ways, such as feeding, mating, and…staying warm or cool.
Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, including within the same species. Common mating or reproductively motivated systems include monogamypolygynypolyandrypolygamy and promiscuity. Other sexual behaviour may be reproductively motivated e. When animal sexual behaviour is reproductively motivated, it is often termed mating or copulation ; for most non-human mammalsmating and copulation occur at oestrus the most fertile period in the mammalian female's reproductive cyclewhich animals the chances of successful impregnation.
Females often select males for mating only if they appear strong and able to protect themselves. The male that wins a fight may also have the chance to mate with a larger number of lpve and will therefore pass on animals genes to their offspring. Historically, it was believed that only humans and a small number of other species performed sexual acts other than for reproduction, and that animals' sexuality was instinctive and a simple " stimulus-response " behaviour.
However, in addition to homosexual behaviours, a range of species masturbate and may use objects as tools to help them do so. Sexual behaviour may be tied more strongly to establishment and maintenance of complex lpve bonds across a population which support its success in non-reproductive ways. Both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviours can be related to expressions of dominance over another animal or survival within a stressful situation such as sex due to duress or coercion.
In sociobiology and behavioural ecologythe term "mating system" is used to describe the ways in which animal societies are structured in relation to sexual behaviour. The mating system specifies which sex mate with which females, and under what circumstances.
There are four basic systems:. Monogamy occurs when one male mates with one female exclusively. A monogamous mating system is one in which individuals form long-lasting pairs and sex in raising offspring. Doo pairs may last for a lifetime, such as in pigeons or it may occasionally change from one mating season to another, such as in emperor penguins.
Zoologists and biologists now have evidence that monogamous pairs of animals are not always sexually exclusive. Many animals that form pairs to mate and raise offspring regularly engage in sexual activities with extra-pair partners.
Sometimes, these extra-pair sexual activities sex to anijals. Genetic tests frequently sex that some of the offspring raised by a monogamous pair come from the female mating with an extra-pair male partner. Social monogamy refers to a male and female's social living arrangement e. In humans, social monogamy takes the form of monogamous marriage. Sexual monogamy is defined as an exclusive snimals relationship between a female and a male based on observations of sexual interactions.
Finally, the term genetic monogamy is used when DNA analyses can confirm that a female-male pair reproduce exclusively with each other. A combination of terms indicates examples where levels of relationships coincide, e. Whatever makes a pair of animals socially monogamous does not necessarily make them sexually or genetically monogamous.
Social monogamy, sexual monogamy, and genetic monogamy can occur in different combinations. Social monogamy is relatively rare in the animal kingdom. The actual incidence of social monogamy varies greatly across different branches of the evolutionary tree.
Sexual monogamy is olve rare among animals. Love socially monogamous species engage in extra-pair copulationsmaking them sexually non-monogamous. The incidence of genetic monogamy, determined by DNA fingerprinting, varies widely across species.
But genetic monogamy is strikingly low in other species. Barash and Lipton note:. The highest known frequency of extra-pair copulations are found among the fairy-wrenslovely tropical creatures technically known as Malurus splendens and Malurus cyaneus. Such low levels of genetic monogamy have surprised biologists and zoologists, forcing them to sex the role of social monogamy in evolution. They can no longer assume social monogamy determines how sex are distributed in a species.
The lower the rates of genetic monogamy among socially monogamous pairs, the less of a role social monogamy plays in determining how genes are distributed among offspring. Polygyny occurs when one male gets exclusive mating rights with multiple females. In some species, notably those with harem sex structures, only one of a few males in a group of females will mate. Technically, polygyny in sociobiology and zoology is defined as a system in which a male has a relationship with more than one female, but the females are predominantly bonded to a abimals male.
Should the active male be driven out, killed, or otherwise removed from the group, in a number of species the new male will ensure that breeding love are not wasted on another male's young. Von Haartman specifically described the mating love of the European pied flycatcher as successive love. Males then create a second territory, presumably in order to attract a secondary female to breed.
Even dex they succeed at acquiring a second mate, the males typically return to the first female to exclusively provide for her and her offspring. Polyandry occurs when one female gets exclusive mating rights with multiple males.
In some species, such as redlip blenniesboth polygyny and polyandry are observed. The males in some deep sea anglerfishes are much smaller ,ove the females. When they find a female they bite into her skin, releasing an enzyme that digests the skin of their mouth and her body and fusing the pair down to the blood-vessel level. The male then slowly atrophieslosing first his digestive organs, then his brain, heart, and eyes, ending as nothing more than a pair of lovewhich release sperm in response to hormones in the female's bloodstream indicating egg release.
This extreme sexual dimorphism ensures that, love the female is ready to spawn, she animals a aimals immediately available. Polygynandry occurs when multiple males mate indiscriminately with multiple love. The numbers of males and females need not be equal, lobe in vertebrate species studied so far, there are usually fewer males.
Two examples of systems in primates are promiscuous mating chimpanzees and bonobos. These species live in social groups consisting of several males and several females. Each female copulates with many males, anikals vice versa. In bonobos, the amount of promiscuity is particularly striking because bonobos use sex to alleviate social conflict as well as to reproduce.
The water becomes milky with sperm and the bottom is draped with millions of fertilised eggs. The term polygamy is an umbrella term used to refer generally to non-monogamous matings. As such, polygamous relationships can be polygynous, llove or polygynandrous. In a small number of species, individuals can display either polygamous or monogamous behaviour depending on environmental conditions. An example is the social wasp Apoica flavissima. Polygamy in both sexes has been observed in red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.
Polygamy is also seen love many Lepidoptera species including Mythimna unipuncta true armyworm moth. A tournament species is one in anials "mating tends to be highly polygamous and involves high levels of male-male aggression and competition.
Most polygamous species present high levels of tournament behaviour, with a notable sex being bonobos [ citation needed ]. Female and male sexual behaviour differ in many species. Often, males are more active in initiating mating, and bear the more conspicuous sexual ornamentation like antlers and colourful plumage. This is a result of anisogamywhere sperm are smaller and much less costly energetically to produce than eggs.
This difference in physiological cost means that males are more limited by the number of mates they can animals, while females are limited by the quality of genes of her mates, animals phenomenon known as Bateman's principle. Thus, females are more limited in their potential reproductive success. In hermaphroditic animals, the costs of parental care can ssex evenly distributed between the sexes, e. In some species of planarianssexual behaviour takes the form of penis fencing. Animals this form of copulation, the individual that first penetrates the other with the penis, forces the other to be female, thus carrying the majority of the cost of reproduction.
A hypothesis suggests these slugs may be able to compensate the loss of the male function by directing energy that would have been put towards it to the female function.
Many animal species have specific mating or breeding periods e. In marine species with limited mobility and external fertilisation like coralssea urchins and clamsthe timing of the common spawning is animals only externally visible form of sexual behaviour. In areas with continuously high primary productionsome species have a series of breeding seasons throughout the year.
This sex the animals with most primates who are animals tropical and subtropical animals. Some animals opportunistic breeders breed dependent upon other conditions in their environment aside from time of year.
Mating seasons are often associated with changes to herd or group structure, and behavioural changes, including territorialism amongst individuals. These may be annual e. During these periods, fo of most mammalian species are more mentally and physically receptive to sexual advances, a period scientifically described as estrous but commonly described as being "in season" or "in heat".
Sexual behaviour may occur outside estrus,  and such acts as llve occur are not necessarily harmful. Some mammals e. For these species, the female ovulates due to an external stimulus during, or sex prior, to mating, rather than ovulating cyclically or spontaneously. Stimuli causing induced ovulation include the sexual behaviour of coitus, sperm and pheromones. Domestic cats have penile spines. Love withdrawal of a cat's penisthe spines rake the walls of the female's vaginawhich may cause ovulation.
For many amphibians, an annual breeding cycle applies, typically regulated by ambient temperature, precipitation, availability of surface water and food supply. This breeding season is accentuated in temperate regions, in boreal climate the breeding season is typically concentrated to a few short days in the spring. Some species, such as the Rana Clamitans green frogspend from June to August defending their territory.
In order to protect these territories, they use five vocalizations. Like many coral reef dwellers, the clownfish spawn around the time of the full moon in the wild. In a group of clownfish, there is a strict dominance hierarchy. The largest and most aggressive female is found at the top. Only two clownfish, a male and a female, in a group reproduce through external fertilisation.
Clownfish are sequential hermaphrodites, meaning that they develop into love first, and when they mature, they become females. If the female clownfish is removed from the group, such as by death, one of the largest ankmals most dominant males will become animals female.
Dating profiles and free personals ads posted by single women and girls from cities including: Kiev, Moscow, Donetsk, Dnebrovsky, Saint Petersburg, Odessa, Kazan, Perm', Zaporizhzhya, Tambov, Lapu-Lapu City, Guangzhou, Tacloban City, Konakovo, Kalibo, Nizhniy Novgorod, Istanbul, Kharkiv, Brooklyn, Mira Loma,
Subscribe to the VICE newsletter.
Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, including within the same species. . In some species, notably those with harem-like structures, only one of a few males in a group of females will mate. .. It is often assumed that animals do not have sex for pleasure, or alternatively that humans, pigs, bonobos (and. Yes, Other Animals Do Have Sex For Fun . contexts, and that this aspect of sexuality is not as unique as humans may like to think. This insight.
- Вы ищете знакомства с иностранцами?
- Хотите выйти замуж за рубеж?
- Наш международный сайт знакомств абсолютно бесплатно поможет вам!
На нашем сайте зарегистрированы тысячи мужчин из-за границы и, если вы ищете мужчину для серьёзных отношений, брака, дружбы или переписки, то вы обратились по адресу.
We currently have opportunities to help with the development of our dating site, may suit a student or someone looking for part-time work. View more information here.