The main premise sex this hypothesis is that breast cancer is caused by sexual frustration. Sexual frustration is triggered by multiple forms of dissonance between the absence or lack of sex reward and the un conscious motivation to obtain these sexual rewards.
I assume that neural and hormonal processes are capable of breast or distorting biologically active forms of specific sex hormones depending on experienced sexual stimuli. Breast hypothesize that breasr sexual frustration will ultimately lead via aberrantly metabolized sex hormones to breast development of breast cancer.
Human female sexual behavior research links sexual frustration with breast cancer risk. The distinction between human female sexual behavior and reproduction is crucial to understand breast cancer risk. Current explanations are focused on reproduction. However, human female sexual behavior is causal in breast cancer development and androgens rather than estrogens are crucial for sexual behaviors in sex.
Social breast is sex main breawt of human sexual behaviors that is breast cultural and social processes are very important to understand breast cancer breat. Epidemiologists should evaluate breast cancer risk based on cultural female attitudes towards sexually related issues. Female mate choices should be examined for un conscious sex, ethnic, religious, and socio-economic pressure to make a thorough assessment breast breast cancer risk.
Closer examination of un conscious female copulation strategies reveal that they are potential sources of sexual frustration in specific groups of women. Postmenopausal women seem vulnerable for self-fulfilling prophecies about post reproductive sexuality, body image, and negative perceptions of menopause which may cause sexual frustrations.
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My classmates and I nodded sec, and the professor added it to a growing list on the board. In other primate species, only pregnant or lactating females have bosoms. The animals stay flat-chested for the rest of their lives. In humans, pubescent girls accumulate fat around their milk glands, which stays for life and seems to hold breast appeal in every culture. Since our ancestors evolved in equatorial Africa, perhaps females stored fat similarly, in their breasts, butts and sex.
Whether breast not breasts first served as energy banks or handle bars for mothers and infants, they eventually caught the attention zex males. Reproduce with me! Furthermore, heterosexual sex should sex more attracted to breasts with those qualities. The researchers measured two female sex hormones — progesterone and a form of estrogen E2 — breast spit samples, collected from healthy Polish women every morning for the duration of one menstrual cycle, or roughly one month.
Not considering waists, breast size alone related only sex E2 levels. Because estrogen sex a crucial role sex girls developing sex womanly figures, breast may suggest that breasts are just a side effect of gaining healthy voluptuous fat overall.
And the picture gets complicated when additional populations are considered. However, this experiment only measured 33 California women. In a study, scientists asked study participants breaet choose their breast preference, looking for universal choices that may be biologically programmed.
Usually, participants are asked to rate, in order of attractiveness, a few images of the same woman, digitally modified to have different-looking breasts. The ladies may be bikini clad, topless or just represented by a cartoon silhouette.
Suffice to say, if there are underlying, biologically evolved preferences for certain breast qualities, cultural and individual factors can override them. More research ses certainly needed.
X Account Login Forgot your password? Register for an account X Enter your name and email sex below. X Sex access code Enter your access xx into the form field below. Apply code If you are a Zinio, Nook, Kindle, Apple, breast Google Play subscriber, you can enter your website access code to gain subscriber access. The Sciences. Planet Earth. Learn more about sdx new website. Primate mothers only develop enlarged breasts during ovulation, whereas human females have them from puberty on.
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In contrast, patients who had undergone breast reconstruction after mastectomy reported body image satisfaction similar to that of women in the control group, highlighting the positive impact of breast reconstruction on body image. Although the study design did not allow an analysis of the impact of breast reconstruction on the quality of life of patients, it permitted the assessment of sexual function and associated factors, such as body image and depression, in a group of patients who had undergone breast reconstruction, and the results of the study showed the importance of personal characteristics, such as marital status, education level, and age.
The assessment of sexual function in women who lost their breast as a result of cancer treatment is an important and integral part of patient follow-up. Sexual function assessment should also be included in the evaluation of the effectiveness of different treatments for breast cancer.
Breast cancer is considered a chronic disease, with increasing incidence in recent decades. Improved diagnostic methods and less aggressive surgical treatments increase survival time and enhance the quality of survival. It is necessary and important to evaluate the patient's quality of survival and quality of life, focusing on factors such as sexuality, body image, and depression. The assessment of these factors and their impact on patient quality of life allows the implementation of support measures by a multidisciplinary team, the identification of at-risk patients, and tailored treatment based on the assessment results.
A cross-sectional design provides the opportunity to assess patients with different treatment times whose evaluation would be more difficult in a prospective study. However, we acknowledge that a prospective design would be more appropriate to evaluate the impact of mastectomy combined or not combined with breast reconstruction on the quality of life of patients, and this may be considered a limitation of the study.
Small subgroup sample sizes in terms of tumour characteristics were also a limitation that prevented some subgroup analyses. Further studies that include more patients, utilize a prospective design, and involve multiple centres are necessary to extend our results.
Patients who had undergone breast reconstruction after mastectomy reported better sexual function, better body image, and fewer depressive symptoms than patients who had undergone mastectomy alone. The results also showed that sexual dysfunction was associated with the absence of a marital partner and a higher level of education and was more frequent in the mastectomy group.
Assessment of actions for breast cancer early detection in Brazil using process indicators: a descriptive study with Sismama data, Epidemiol Serv Saude. Surgical treatment of breast cancer: data from a renowned institution in the Brazilian Northeast.
Losing the breast: A meta-synthesis of the impact in women breast cancer survivors. Therapy choices and quality of life in young breast cancer survivors: a short-term follow-up. Am J Surg. Evaluation of symptoms of anxiety and depression in women with breast cancer after breast amputation or conservation treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Ann Agric Environ Med. Quality of life following total mastectomy with and without reconstruction versus breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer: A case-controlled cohort study.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. Self-reported sexual health: Breast cancer survivors compared to women from the general population - an observational study. BMC Cancer. Prevalence and correlates of sexual morbidity in long-term breast cancer survivors. Psychol Health. Perceived effects of health status on sexual activity in women and men older than 50 years. Health Qual Life Outcomes. Quality of life outcomes after pedicled TRAM flap delayed breast reconstruction. Br J Plast Surg. Rev HCPA. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet.
Gorenstein C, Andrade L. Braz J Med Biol Res. Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clin Psychol Rev.
Rosen JC, Reiter J. Development of the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination. Behav Res Ther. Quality of life in long-term, disease-free survivors of breast cancer: a follow-up study. J Natl Cancer Inst. The effect on quality of life and body image of mastectomy among breast cancer survivors. Eur J Breast Health. Quality of life in long-term breast cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol. Health-related quality of life in disease-free survivors of breast cancer with the general population.
Ann Oncol. Ann Plast Surg. Impact of delayed implant and DIEP flap breast reconstruction on body image and sexual satisfaction: a prospective follow-up study. Quality-of-life outcomes between mastectomy alone and breast reconstruction: comparison of patient-reported BREAST-Q and other health-related quality-of-life measures.
Plast Reconstr Surg. Am Surg. Bartula I, Sherman KA. Screening for sexual dysfunction in women diagnosed with breast cancer: systematic review and recommendations. Breast Cancer Res Treat. Psychosexual and body image aspects of quality of life in Turkish breast cancer patients: a comparison of breast conserving treatment and mastectomy. Understanding the factors that influence breast reconstruction decision making in Australian women. Sexual problems in younger women after breast cancer surgery.
Predictors of depression among older African American cancer patients. Cancer Nurs. Sexuality after breast reconstruction post mastectomy. Aesthetic Plast Surg. Aspects of body image after mastectomy due to breast cancer - a two-year follow-up study.
Eur J Oncol Nurs. The effect of breast reconstruction surgery on body image among women after mastectomy: a meta-analysis. E-mail: svieiraarchangelo gmail. Archangelo S de C contributed to the conception of the study, the acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of the data, and manuscript writing. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript and take public responsibility for the appropriate parts of the content.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Services on Demand Journal. Original Article Sexuality, depression and body image after breast reconstruction. Received: July 22, ; Accepted: January 17, How to cite this article. Learn more about Amazon Prime. Get fast, free delivery with Amazon Prime.
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To evaluate the impact of sex reconstruction after mastectomy on sexual function, body image, and depression. Patients were assessed for sexual function, depression, and body image using the validated Brazilian-Portuguese versions of the Female Sexual Function Index, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination, respectively. The three groups were homogeneous for age, marital status, body mass index, and education level.
The women in the mastectomy group reported significantly worse sexual function, greater depressive symptoms, and lower body image than those sex the mastectomy-reconstruction and control groups. In the mastectomy group, the frequency of sexual dysfunction was significantly greater among patients without a marital partner and those with a higher level of education than among patients in the other two groups with the same characteristics.
Patients who had undergone breast reconstruction after mastectomy sex better sexual function and body image and fewer depressive symptoms than patients who had undergone mastectomy alone.
Sexual dysfunction was associated brast the absence of a marital partner and a higher level of education and was more frequent in the mastectomy group.
Breast cancer is also the most common malignant neoplasm among women in Brazil 1. It is estimated that sezapproximately 59, new cases of breast cancer will occur, corresponding to Breast cancer has a relatively good prognosis when diagnosed and treated promptly.
However, in Brazil, breast cancer mortality rates remain high, with There are still a significant number of patients with palpable breast lesions at the time of diagnosis, indicating the need to improve early diagnosis strategies, which allows physicians to determine the correct diagnosis in a timely manner, thus optimizing the chances of treatment and reducing breast cancer mortality rates 2.
Breawt is considered one of the most devastating treatments from a sex point of view and affects self-esteem, femininity, and body image, causing more trauma than cancer itself 4. The quality of life of patients with breast cancer is affected by factors sex as pain, fear of recurrence, fatigue, depression, feelings breast decreased femininity and attractiveness, and changes in body image, self-esteem, sex sexuality 5 - 7and these factors are especially relevant after mastectomy 89.
Sexual quality of life, considered one of the pillars of overall quality of life, may be influenced by episodes of depression and body image disorders The World Health Organization WHO recognizes sexual dysfunction as a public health problem and recommends research on this topic and patient treatment because of its negative impact on quality breast life, its effects related to self-esteem and interpersonal relationships, and its association with frequent emotional distress 7.
Breast reconstruction has a positive impact on different aspects of quality of life, especially on body image among young women, who usually attach great importance to body image Breast reconstruction may improve self-esteem without increasing the risk of relapse or delaying the diagnosis of local recurrence 7. Thus, the aim of breast study was to evaluate the impact of breast reconstruction after mastectomy on specific aspects of patient quality of life, including sexual function, body image, and depression.
If the study shows that breast reconstruction after mastectomy leads to improved quality of life in the breast cancer population, the findings may contribute to the inclusion of breast reconstruction procedures in the routine treatment of patients breast breast cancer in the Brazilian public health system.
Written informed consent was obtained from all patients prior to their inclusion in the study; patient anonymity was assured. The study was designed to assess aspects of quality of life i. Factors regarded as affecting the results included no evidence of active disease and the use of antidepressants.
Information on breast tumour characteristics, such as tumour staging, axillary staging, treatments received, and type of surgery, is available but was not included in the study because the subgroup sample sizes were small, which did not allow for a subgroup analysis.
The inclusion criteria were female gender; age between 18 and 65 years; sexually active status; and previous mastectomy combined with immediate or late breast reconstruction mastectomy-reconstruction group or previous mastectomy alone mastectomy group at least one year prior to the study or no history of breast cancer control group. As described previously 1213the Brazilian version of the FSFI, a measure of sexual function in women, meets all requirements for international validation and shows acceptable discriminant validity in the literature, discriminating between women with and without sexual dysfunction 12 The Brazilian version of the FSFI is a brief scale composed of 19 items grouped into six domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain.
The FSFI has been successfully applied to assess sexual function in different populations 12 According to the literature 1415the BDI measures the severity of depressive symptoms.
As a self-report instrument composed of 21 items, the instrument was developed for use with psychiatric patients but has been widely used in clinical bdeast and research breast non-psychiatric patients and in the general breasf. The BDI has been translated into several languages and validated in different countries. Based on BDI scores, depression can be rated as minimum scoreslight scoresbresst scoresor severe scores The BDDE was used for the evaluation of body breasr.
As reported in previous studies 16the BDDE is a specific item questionnaire that measures the degree of dissatisfaction with a particular part of the body, contributing to the diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorders. A total score is calculated as the sum of the ratings for all items, except items 1 to 3, 22, 33, and 34, for a maximum score of A cutoff score of 66 or more indicates some degree of dissatisfaction with one's appearance.
Breast questionnaires were administered in the form of interviews during routine visits in the breast cancer and plastic surgery outpatient clinics of a university hospital. A chi-square test was carried out to compare the qualitative variables among the groups. The Mann-Whitney test was applied to compare the mean BDI scores, weight and education level between patients with or without sexual dysfunction. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version The mean age of patients sexx the mastectomy group was 48 years median, Most patients in the three groups had a marital partner.
Patients in the mastectomy group reported significantly higher BDI scores median, The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer result in significant psychological distress, contributing to a negative perception of quality of life.
Physical changes such as impaired mobility and upper limb lymphedema, chemotherapy, vasomotor symptoms, vaginal dryness, and sexual dysfunctions may also affect the quality of life z these women 8 Aesthetic standards defining a woman as sensual and attractive change over time. Breasts not only play an important physiological role in some phases of a woman's life but also represent a cultural symbol of femininity, sensuality, and sexuality. The sex number of women with breast cancer may be attributed to decreasing mortality rates, increasing rates of early detection, improved treatments, and increasing incidence of new cases of breast cancer in the last decade.
These women should receive support for their psychological adjustment after the surgical treatment of breast cancer Previous studies have shown that the overall quality of life of patients treated for breast cancer, when free from disease, is similar to that of women without breast cancer 20 but with clinically significant differences in cognitive and functional status, fatigue, insomnia, and financial bdeast Relationship quality seems to be an important determinant of sexual function in women with breast cancer and can interfere with the physiological process of excitation, lubrication, orgasm, and satisfaction 8.
In the present study, the frequency of sexual dysfunction among patients without a marital partner was significantly higher in the mastectomy group than in the other groups, but no significant differences in sexual dysfunction between the groups were observed brdast patients who had a breast relationship. The authors acknowledge the limitation of conducting a retrospective study, but the homogeneity of the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants and the inclusion of a control group composed of healthy women contributed to making the results reliable and meaningful Breast reconstruction is an oncologically safe procedure that improves the patient's self-esteem without breast the risk of relapse or delaying the diagnosis of local recurrence 7.
The reconstruction of the breast after mastectomy may preserve a woman's self-concept and improve her body image 23 and quality of breast, resulting in a less traumatic rehabilitation process compared to that for mastectomy alone 24especially among younger women, who give greater importance to body sxe than older women Adequate sexual function is an important factor in the overall quality of life and life satisfaction.
Considering the barriers to discussing sexual function, the use of a validated, reliable, easy-to-use scale for assessing sexual dysfunction can be helpful for evaluating outcomes and side effects of breast cancer treatments The FSFI was chosen for the study because it is a tool widely used for assessing breast cancer patients in clinical and research settings.
However, this version has not yet been cross-culturally validated for use in Brazil. In this study, a trend towards higher education level was observed sex sx in the mastectomy-reconstruction group, suggesting that women with higher education may be more sensitive to body image changes resulting from mastectomy, possibly due to the demands of their active social and professional aex Patients who had undergone breast reconstruction reported sexual function similar to that of the sex and significantly higher than that of patients who had undergone mastectomy alone, which is consistent with previous studies No significant differences in sexual dysfunction were found among younger patients in the three groups, contrasting with other research findings Patients in the mastectomy group had a median age of According to epidemiological data, menopause occurs in Brazilian women around 51 years of age Considering that female life expectancy in Brazil is The menopausal transition alone does not diminish sexual interest but affects the sexual response excitement phasewhich aex slower and more intense because of oestrogen deprivation.
The orgasmic phase becomes shorter, and pain is more frequent due to genital atrophy. Our sex showed a decrease in sexual function among women 48 to 65 years of age, including the controls, which is consistent with the findings of other authors reporting on increased sexual dysfunction during the menopausal transition Patients from 18 to 47 years of age reported better sexual function than older patients, without significant differences between the groups.
Low FSFI scores in young patients who had undergone mastectomy have also been reported by other authors 31 - Overall, patients in the mastectomy group showed more depressive symptoms than patients in the other two groups, which was in agreement with previous studies using the BDI to assess women treated for breast cancer 6.
Changes in physical appearance breas from radical surgical procedures for the treatment of breast cancer are one of the most frequent causes of depression and low self-concept among this population, usually because patients feel less sexually attractive and less feminine 6. Depressive symptoms were more frequent among younger patients aged 18 to 47 years, showing that the combination of age and history rbeast depression may be an vreast predictor of depression in this age group In this series, no significant correlation was observed between sexual dysfunction and depression, although increased depressive symptoms were observed in patients with sexual dysfunction, especially in the mastectomy group.
Patients in the mastectomy group also reported worse body image than other subjects, suggesting that changes in physical appearance caused by the surgical treatment may affect sexual dysfunction. Previous studies have also reported poor body image among patients who had undergone sex 34 In contrast, patients who had undergone breast reconstruction after mastectomy breast body image satisfaction similar to that of women in the control group, highlighting the positive impact of breast reconstruction on body image.
Although the study design did not allow an analysis of the impact of breast reconstruction on the quality of life of patients, it permitted the assessment of sexual function and associated factors, such as body image and depression, in a group of patients brdast had undergone breast breasst, and the results of the study showed the importance of personal characteristics, such as marital status, education level, and age.
The assessment of sexual function in women who lost their breast as a result of cancer treatment is an important and integral part of patient follow-up. Sexual function assessment should also be included in the evaluation of the effectiveness of different treatments for breasg cancer.
Breast cancer is considered a chronic disease, with increasing incidence in recent decades. Improved diagnostic methods and less aggressive surgical treatments increase survival time and enhance the quality of survival. It is necessary and important to evaluate the patient's quality of survival and quality of life, focusing on factors such as sexuality, body image, and depression.
The assessment of these factors and their impact on patient quality of life allows the implementation of support measures by a multidisciplinary team, the identification of at-risk patients, and tailored treatment based on the assessment results.
A cross-sectional design provides the opportunity to assess patients with different breast times whose evaluation would be more difficult in a prospective study. However, we acknowledge c a prospective design would be more appropriate to evaluate the impact of mastectomy combined or not combined with breast reconstruction on the quality of life of patients, and this may be considered a limitation of the study.
Small subgroup sample sizes in terms of tumour characteristics were also a limitation that prevented some subgroup analyses. Further studies that include more patients, utilize a prospective design, and involve multiple centres are necessary to extend our results. Patients brast had undergone breast breasf after mastectomy reported better sexual function, better body image, and fewer depressive symptoms than patients who had undergone mastectomy alone.
The results also showed that sexual dysfunction was associated with the absence of a marital partner and a higher level of education and was more frequent in the mastectomy group. Assessment of actions for breast cancer early detection in Brazil using process indicators: a descriptive study with Sismama data, Epidemiol Serv Saude.
Surgical treatment of breast cancer: data from a renowned institution in the Brazilian Northeast. Losing the breast: A meta-synthesis of the impact in women breast cancer survivors. Therapy choices and quality of life in young breast cancer survivors: a short-term brexst. Am J Surg. Evaluation of symptoms of anxiety and depression in women with breast cancer after breast amputation or conservation treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
Ann Agric Environ Med. Quality of life following total mastectomy with and without reconstruction versus breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer: A case-controlled cohort study.
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Primate mothers only develop enlarged breasts during ovulation, whereas As for breasts, some hypotheses in the sexual selection camp. The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of . These development stages of secondary sex characteristics (breasts, pubic hair, etc . Implants can interfere with mammography (breast x-rays images).
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