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While most countries of Southeast Asia resist the classification of prostitution as an industry, or sex work as an acceptable occupation in asian statistics, there is no doubt that millions of women in the region earn a livelihood from selling sexual services. Asian do this virtually all of these women are forced to leave their birthplaces and residences and migrate to places where they will have some anonymity.
Often this migration is sex, and sometimes it involves cruel exploitation. This paper pulls together the limited data available to gain insights into the shadowy world of Asian prostitution. It concludes that while governments frequently crack down on women selling sex, they ignore the roles of male customers, and often protect the criminal elements who use kidnapping and violence to exploit the women. There is a need for legalization of the sex industry to protect women and expel criminals.
Souvent, cette migration est involontaire, et parfois elle implique une exploitation cruelle. He was the author of more than books, articles in scholarly journals, chapters in books, as well as a large number of conference papers and reports. There is a strong relationship between this development and population movement.
On the one hand various types of population shift have created significant markets for prostitutes. These include concentrations of contract workers usually males in plantations, mineral and oil extraction areas, sawmills etc. As well as the rapid development of urban areas to which single workers are attracted. Asian the rapid expansion of international tourism has created a demand for sex workers. On the other expose as Lim points out:. Prostitution is closely related to both internal and international migration.
Prostitutes generally do not engage in the trade in their hometowns or villages. They tend to be procured from rural areas and small towns for sex cities or, as young, first time job seekers new to urban areas are drawn into the sex sector.
Lim b: The present paper begins by outlining the increasing scale of migration in Southeast Asia in s and the increasing feminisation of that movement.
The second part of the expose examines some of the features of the migration of prostitutes in the region and the final section addresses some policy implications. Unfortunately the data vary greatly in the definitions of migration adopted. For example, in the Indonesian census one has to move permanently across the boundaries of the 27 asian to be counted as a migrant, whereas in Malaysia asian permanent changes in place of residence are recorded in the census. Even within countries at different points in time different definitions of migration are employed.
Nevertheless an increase in the extent of migration of women is strikingly apparent and in some instances e. In the Philippines the proportion of Filipinos who moved between and was slightly less than it was in This is probably due to the fact that asian of the people who in the s would have moved within the Philippines in the late s moved internationally and were not counted in the census. Nevertheless it is interesting to note that female mobility is higher than that of males.
The difference was due to the fact that the latter detected temporary migration but the former did not. However, it is apparent asian among census migrants there is not as much male dominance. This is due to the fact that females tend expose to be as involved in non-permanent expose. However, it is clear that females are becoming increasingly significant in non-permanent as well as permanent migration and it is apparent that prostitutes are an important part of the female non permanent migration e.
Table 1. Source: Indonesia—Censuses of,and Intercensal Survey of Philippines—Raymundo et al. Malaysia—Hugo et al. It can be assured that almost all asian these are migrants. Table 2. The internal sex are directed to the main types of areas:. Table 3 for example shows how the proportion of lifetime migrants in Jakarta, Indonesia has gone from However, when expose recent migrants are considered This reflects the fact both of increased female participation in migration and increased turnover of females in megacities, with many spending several years in the city then returning to the village.
Female migration in the Sex Asian context has taken some distinctive forms and there is a great deal of segmentation into specific types of migration Hugo b. Movement of workers, mostly on a temporary basis has been the largest flow.
It is difficult to establish the extent of labour migration of women among Asian countries because much of the movement is undocumented and many of the sources do not break down the official data that are available by gender.
In Table 4 we make some estimates of the size of the labour migration from the Southeast Asian region among the main outmigration countries. Overall females would appear to make up between a third and a half of all migrants. An important segment of female migration in the region is the movement of sex workers between countries in the region but also and importantly to destinations outside of the region.
Two of the major areas of asian of female sex workers are Thailand and expose Philippines but there are also flows from Indonesia to Malaysia and Singapore and from Burma, Cambodia and Laos into Thailand. Table 5. Nevertheless, it is apparent that it has become involved in the international sex trade of sex region.
More recently there were reports of more than 17, Taiwanese men taking young Vietnamese women as mail order sex with cases of sexual exploitation being reported South China Morning Post18 January However, there is a significant movement of sex workers from Indonesia to Sabah predominantly from East Java and from Sumatra to Peninsula Malaysia and Singapore Jones There is significant movement of prostitutes from the Riau area in Sumatra to nearby Singapore—in fact there is substantial nightly commuting of sex workers from Riau into Singapore.
It is clear that women have moved to Batan from other parts of Indonesia particularly to be involved in the sex industry. One insidious element in this expose been the trafficking of women from Thailand. This involves both Thai women and women from other countries for whom Bangkok is staging point in being sent to third countries.
Trafficking of women from Asian countries in virtual slavery has been noted in the region and is often associated with the entertainment and sex industries. Figure 3 shows the main routes for trafficking women and children in Southeast Asia and the centrality of Thailand asian this pattern is evident. This trade is largely in the hands of organised crime, some of it involving diversification from the drug trade.
It is clear that Southeast Asian women, especially Thais, are living in virtual slavery in Japan. Miki 21 found in a study of one of many shelters for foreign wives of Japanese men that of the women helped by the expose, of expose were Thais and of them had been the victims of slavery.
Skrobanek, Boonpakdee and Jantateero have made a study of the trafficking of women in Thailand, and have graphically shown the misery experienced by women involved in this movement which dates back to the nineteenth century. However, this modern form of movement developed out of the expansion of the sex industry in the s due to the basing of many US military men in Thailand.
It grew in the s and many thousands of Sex women were trafficked to Europe and Asia. The main routes of these women sex identified as follows:. Brockett has shown that there is a circuit for Thai sex workers moving into Expose and other Asian destinations, especially Japan. It is also estimated that 30, Burmese women work in the Thai sex industry in Bangkok and in border towns Fairclough This sex both trafficking of Cambodian women to Bangkok and to the rapidly expanding sex industry in Pnom Penh Manila ChronicleJuly 31, It is apparent too that there is movement of Vietnamese prostitutes into Cambodia.
Jones for example documents a range of expose of Indonesian migrant women in Malaysia. He reports that Indonesian officials in Malaysia provided minimal help to migrant women in difficulty indicating that they.
Male migrants, on the other hand, were seen as adventurous and entrepreneurial. From their statements in the press, many Malaysian officials appear to view maids, particularly Filipino but other nationalities as well, as potential prostitutes.
Jones Japan is an important destination. Sazaki indicates that there is a similar pattern of trafficking to that observed in Thailand. Fernandez reports that Malaysia is involved in global trafficking in women as a.
Besides, girls from Thailand are sent to countries like Japan after transit stops at Kuala Lumpur, where syndicated organise Malaysian passports for them. Within Malaysia itself indigenous girls from Sabah and Sarawak are trafficked to peninsular Malaysia. Besides, Indian girls from estates and Malay women from interior Kelantan and Terrenganu are reportedly trafficked to urban areas and the west coast.
Fernandez Movements of men from more developed countries has increased the demand for prostitution in different parts of the region. The stationing of substantial numbers of US troops in Viet Nam, the Philippines and Thailand obviously was significant. Increasingly, sex tourism in the region has increased from other Asian countries, asian Taiwan, Hong Kong and China.
The linkages set up by sex tourism between other countries and Southeast Sex nations such as the Philippines and Thailand also became conduits for the flows of Southeast Asian prostitutes to developed countries like Japan, Germany and Australia. Migrant female sex workers tend to come from particular rural areas. In addition, there are particular parts of the outer islands in Indonesia which are known to supply prostitutes.
For example, North Sumatra is an important supply point for Batam and North Sulawesi for oil and forestry settlements in East Kalimantan. Such patterns are common in other Southeast Asian countries. The reasons for this spatial concentration of origin areas of prostitutes are clearly associated with the development of networks between migrant prostitutes and women in their home villages and the development of subsequent chain migration.
Many women migrate to join friends and relatives already working at the destination expose, hence, move in an atmosphere of certainty.
Jones, Sulistyaningsih and Hull ibid. Fieldwork in Java found situations where asian of prostitutes in Sumatra sent money to particular villages in Java to send girls to Sumatra to work as prostitutes. It may also be adventitious factors which see a particular individual recruited into the industry and then subsequently paving the way for fellow villagers to join her. Field experience indicates that these women are often not open about their destination occupation in their home areas but there is general knowledge in sex village about what work they do.
There is no doubt that over time there is an acceptance of the work in the origin area and that it becomes an sex or normal part of behaviour for young women to leave the village to work as prostitutes.
The remittances from the prostitutes are an important source of funds for village development. A key element in the migration of women to work as prostitutes in Southeast Asia is the involvement of recruiters. While middlemen and women are involved in several activities within the prostitution industry in the region, those involved in the recruiting of new women for the industry play a crucial role.
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